Using an electric mixer, combine flour, sugar, and salt. Cut in butter and mix until it resembles small pebbles. Add in egg yolks and vanilla. With mixer on low, add in cold water, one teaspoon at a time, until dough forms.
Knead dough with your hands a couple of times to fully combine. Wrap in plastic and refrigerate for at least an hour.
When ready, preheat oven to 400F. Generously butter a 24-cup mini muffin tin.
Roll out dough on a lightly floured surface to ¼ inch thick.
Using a 2½ inch cookie cutter or glass, cut out 24 circles. Press dough into muffin tin and prick with a fork along the bottom.
Top each muffin cup with a small piece of foil and some pie weights. Alternatively, you can use dry beans to weigh down the dough.
Bake for 10 minutes, remove pie weights and foil, and bake for an additional 5-7 minutes, until crusts are golden brown. Let crusts cool.
Reduce oven to 350F.
Using an electric mixer or food processor, whip together cream cheese, sugar, and eggs. Add in lemon juice and zest and beat until fully combined.
Once crusts have cooled, spoon in filling to the top of the crust. If you have extra filling, you can pour it into small ramekins and bake separately.
Bake for 10 minutes or until filling has set.
Remove from oven, let cool for 15 minutes, then remove tarts from muffin tin. Let cool completely. Sprinkle with powdered sugar and serve cold.