Pan de Muerto (Bread of the Dead)

October 21, 2021
8 Ratings
Photo by Mellissa Hom
  • Prep time 15 minutes
  • Cook time 45 minutes
  • makes 2 breads
Author Notes

The last days of October are filled with the aromas of marigolds, copal, toasted canela, orange blossom, anise seed, mole, tortillas, and wood. Many are busy preparing for the Day of the Dead celebrations that take place during the first days of November (the main festivity is on the 2nd). The celebration dates back to the Aztec times where it's believed that the diseased are embarking on a journey, eventually leading them to the Mictlan, the highest lever of the underworld where they would finally rest in peace. The cemeteries are filled with laughter, mariachis, food, lights, and flowers, and it is a celebration of life. People gather around the tombs and bring the deceased favorite food and sounds.

It isn't that death isn't painful, but it's believed that one embarks on a journey and it's a way to celebrate the time we had with them and to keep them alive. There are many different breads made for this celebration. In Michoacán they are sculpted into shapes of flowers, the Virgin Mary, skulls, or animals; in Oaxaca, you will find round breads topped with sesame seeds and colorful head figurines coming out of them. In the center of Mexico, the dough is made with pulque (fermented beverage made from the maguey plant) instead of yeast, giving it a very distinctive herbal-acid flavor; many placed dust the tops with pink sugar, remembering the ceremonial use of the bread. The varieties are too large to count, but this one is perhaps the most known. This particular recipe is adapted from Maricu, a chef from Mexico City who owns a cooking school with the same name.

Even though you may not celebrate the Day of the Dead, I encourage you to make this delicious bread decorated with "bones" and take a moment to remember the life of those who are no longer with you in this life. —Fany Gerson

What You'll Need
Watch This Recipe
Pan de Muerto (Bread of the Dead)
  • Bread
  • 1/4 ounce active dry yeast
  • 4 cups bread flour, divided
  • 2/3 cup milk, divided
  • 2 tablespoons orange blossom water
  • 1/2 cup sugar
  • 1 teaspoon kosher salt
  • 1 teaspoon finely grated orange zest
  • 4 large eggs, lightly beaten
  • 1 cup unsalted butter, room temperature (you can save the paper to grease the bowl, or just use cooking spray)
  • Topping
  • 1/2 cup (1 stick) unsalted butter
  • 1/2 cup sugar
  1. Bread
  2. In a small bowl, dissolve the yeast in ½ cup of the flour, ⅓ cup of the milk, and the orange blossom water. Whisk well to combine (the dough should be sticky and smooth). Let sit in a warm place (about 70°F) for 20 to 30 minutes, until it begins to bubble and puffs up slightly.
  3. In the bowl of a stand mixer fitted with the hook attachment, mix the remaining 3½ cups of the flour, the sugar, salt, and orange zest for about 30 seconds. Add the eggs, the remaining ⅓ cup of the milk, and the yeast mixture. Mix at low speed until the dough starts to come together. Add the butter in small pieces while continuing to mix; increase the speed to medium. The dough will look sticky, but resist the temptation of adding more flour. Continue to beat for 10 to 15 minutes, until the dough is soft and comes off the sides of the bowl. If the dough is still sticky after 15 minutes, add a little flour (no more than ⅓ cup).
  4. Lightly grease a large bowl. Transfer the dough to the bowl and cover with a towel. Let rise in a warm place until doubled in size. Punch down, gather the sides together, and flip so that the bottom is now the top. Cover with plastic wrap. Refrigerate for at least 4 hours or up to overnight (chilling will slow the fermentation process and dull the butter, making it easier to shape).
  5. Remove the dough from refrigerator, uncover, and place a towel on top. Let rise in a warm place (about 70°F) for about 1 hour, until it comes to room temperature.
  6. Separate a little of dough by cutting, NOT pulling (about the size of a large lime) to form the "bones." Divide the remaining dough in half and form into 2 rounds on a smooth flat surface, making sure that the dough is "tight." Place on paper- or silicone-lined sheet trays. Flatten the tops lightly with the palm of your hand.
  7. Take some of the dough for the bones and form into 2 small gumball sized-balls; set aside on the sheet trays. Divide the remaining dough for the bones into 6 pieces. Roll out with your hands from the center of the dough out, making strips that are about 1 inch longer than the width of the rounds. Spread your fingers and press lightly, making knobs that resemble bones. Place 3 strips on top of one of the domes, crossing each other (the strips should be a little longer than the width of the round). Repeat with the remaining strips, then cover the dough lightly with a towel. Let sit in a warm place until doubled in size. To test if the dough has doubled, press lightly with your finger. It should come back slowly all the way back.
  8. Heat the oven to 350°F.
  9. Tap the bottom of the reserved dough rounds with a little water so that they stick. Place the rounds in the center (on top) of the bread, where the strips meet. Bake for 40 to 50 minutes total, until the bread has a nice even dark golden color, then cover loosely with foil and continue to bake until an instant-read thermometer registers 190°F and the bottom of the dough is browned. Transfer to a wire rack and let cool slightly.
  1. Topping
  2. In a small saucepan, melt the butter. Brush each loaf with the butter, making sure to brush all around the knobs.
  3. Hold the bottom of a loaf (if it's too warm, use gloves or a piece of cardboard to hold it) and tilt to cover evenly with the sugar. Repeat with the remaining loaf. Let cool completely.
  4. Variations: The orange zest may be substituted with anise seeds, and milk can be used in place of the orange blossom water.

    Toasted, coarsely ground canela may be used instead of the orange zest, and milk can be used in place of the orange blossom water. The bread is then topped with powdered sugar instead of granulated sugar.

    The original recipe, above, may be made by brushing with egg yolk and topped with sesame seeds before baking (no butter or sugar would be needed in the end).

See what other Food52ers are saying.

  • Mar Pom
    Mar Pom
  • Liz Summers
    Liz Summers
  • Lawyerjen
  • Xocolatl

10 Reviews

kylemdo October 31, 2022
I love this recipe. I made it last year and I’m making it today. It reminds me of brioche bread but better. As Fany mentions in the video, cinnamon is also a tasty addition to the topping. We share this with family and friends to place on their alters and enjoy as they choose. This is our home’s forever Día de Muertos recipe.
LeslieGibson December 12, 2021
Well, Erika is obviously a vile human being. The recipe is delicious and so happy it could be shared with us. Made it for my Latin/Mexican coworkers to show my appreciation for them and they loved it! I think it’s a great way to show them that they are welcome and valued and heard in our society!
Mar P. December 8, 2021
Anise and orange extracts should/could be added
Gabrielamdof November 15, 2021
This recipe is great. However, in a second attempt, I substituted the bread flour for all purpose flour and liked the consistency better, added a little bit more sugar and the zest of a whole orange. Also, rosemary is a great addition and it’s how they do it in Rosetta Bakery in Mexico City. I also divided the dough into four breads and thought it looked better than if I had done only two.

Do follow Fanny’s recommendation of putting foil on top of the breads for the last 10 minutes, otherwise they can get very stiff after a few days after being baked.
Xocolatl October 28, 2023
Thanks for the tip about all purpose flour and tenting.
dcl121486 November 3, 2021
I made this bread over the weekend and I am adding this recipe to my forever stash! It is so light, delicate, and delicious. Next time I make it I will add more zest and less blossom water. The dough is so satisfying to work with, it is just gorgeous. Watching the video made tackling this new bread do-able and exciting. Thank you for sharing!
swiens October 30, 2021
I made Pan de Muerto for the first time using this recipe and it came out perfectly! The video that goes with it is incredibly helpful for technique and knowing what the consistency of the dough should be. I’ll be sharing the bread with some Mexican friends tomorrow and I’m confident that they’ll love it as much as I do.
ninadora October 29, 2021
Well, that was delicious! It is so soft and pillowy. The flavor of the orange blossom and zest was just so good. I was not sure I would like the sugar on top but it was really lovely with the lightly sweetened bread.
Liz S. October 26, 2021
I ordered orange blossom water after watching the youTube video of Fany making this bread. I HIGHLY recommend the video!! She shows dough consistency and explains all beautifully and at a great pace for learning.
Lawyerjen October 22, 2021
For the past several years, I have used a similar Fany Gerson recipe for Pan de Muerto, and it always comes out beautifully! The combination of orange zest and orange blossom water is truly delightful. Looking forward to trying this one this year.