Can You Substitute Baking Soda for Baking Powder? (And Vice Versa?)

February 21, 2018

I call it ingredient paranoia. If you work in a restaurant or bakery long enough, this just happens, like falling asleep on the beach and waking up burnt. One day, you’re noshing on cookie dough, straight from the mixer, not a care in the world. The next, you’re interrogating the cookie dough. Did I add the salt? Did I use this ⅓-cup measure instead of the ½-cup for the sugar? What about baking soda? I remembered baking soda, right? Did I use baking powder by accident? Oh my God, did I? Did I use baking powder by accident?

Well, what if I did? Would it make that much of a difference? Baking soda and baking powder have almost the same name. They’re both fast-acting chemical leaveners, which create gas and give rise to baked goods. And they both come in cute little containers. So what’s the difference?

Fine print

Baking soda—a.k.a. sodium bicarbonate—reacts as soon as it’s mixed with a liquidy, acidic ingredient, producing carbon dioxide. Think fermented dairy products, like yogurt, buttermilk, and sour cream, or citrus juice, or molasses. Baking powder, on the other hand, is baking soda, plus a powdered acid, like cream of tartar. Most of the baking powder you’ll come in contact with will be double-acting, which means it reacts in the batter, then again in the hot oven.


To see just how much of a difference this makes, I put my ingredient paranoia to the test: I mixed up baking soda and baking powder on purpose. These two recipes were the guinea pigs. Some of them may or may not have been harmed during this experiment:


First up, a classic chocolate chip cookie recipe. I used my go-to by Dorie Greenspan. Most crispy-chewy chocolate chip cookie recipes call for just baking soda. I left out the chips, to eliminate another variable, yielding a simple brown sugar cookie. Batch #1, with baking soda, turned out flat and crisp, almost brittle-like once cooled. Batch #2, with baking powder, spread less and rose more, creating a less crunchy, more cakey cookie. It was also noticeably paler. Why? Baking soda’s extreme alkalinity encourages browning. I tried one, tried the other, tried one, tried the other. Both good! Tasty science!

Photo by Emma Laperruque


While cookie recipes often rely on baking soda, cakes turn to baking powder. I used a fluffy, oil-based cake by our contributor Posie Harwood. What caught my eye: This recipe uses a decent amount of baking powder, which will make the swap that much more noticeable. And it includes two acidic ingredients: crème fraîche and lemon juice. Batch #1, with baking powder, went all according to plan. Batch #2, with baking soda, looked promising. In the oven, the cakes rose and colored more. Good and good, right? When removed from the muffin pan, they seemed a little impressionable and drunk—saggy when poked, slouchy when propped to stand on their own. But it’s what’s on the inside that counts. Batch #1 showcased a moist, even crumb. Batch #2 was more irregular, almost like sourdough bread. Cool! Then I tasted it—and scurried to the nearest trash bin to spit it out. Excuse me, sorry about that. It tasted entirely like, well, baking soda. Lesson learned.

Photo by Emma Laperruque

Have you ever mixed up baking soda and baking powder? What happened? Tell us in the comments below!

See what other Food52 readers are saying.

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Emma was the food editor at Food52. She created the award-winning column, Big Little Recipes, and turned it into a cookbook in 2021. These days, she's a senior editor at Bon Appétit, leading digital cooking coverage. Say hello on Instagram at @emmalaperruque.


Christi Z. December 22, 2020
Literally YESTERDAY I made a batch of cookies and as I stood there laughing at these ugly, flat, chewy but crispy, addicting little slabs my husband walked in asked what's up. I said welp, I grabbed the baking soda instead of baking powder when I mixed them up. But man, they are addicting anyways!
KathieProctor February 21, 2018
Many years ago when making pancakes, I used b.s. instead of b.p. or visa versa. The pancakes were uneatable! Now I always make sure I use the one called for in the recipe!
Rui February 21, 2018
I didn't have 1 tbsp of baking powder the other day so instead I used 1 tsp baking soda and 2 tsp cream of tartar. Same results :-)
Lea February 21, 2018
Good to know!
Kt4 March 25, 2018
I do this regularly. Hate the idea of 2 containers going bad! I have to wonder if the author did a 1:1 swap of the baking powder: baking soda experiments?
BlarBlar May 11, 2018
This is exactly what I thought....1 tsp of baking powder = 1/4 tsp of baking soda...the action is the same, the taste should be as well.
Kt4 May 11, 2018
I don't notice a difference in taste. Just need to make sure there's an acid to activate the baking soda (which is what using cream of tartar to make up the measuring difference does).
Smaug October 26, 2018
This is a pretty standard sub- commercial baking powders generally use different acids; double acting powders have two separate acids, a quick acting one and one that's activated by heat, but cream of tartar works fine. Probably best to get it in the oven fairly fast if you use the sub.