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Today: Erik Lombardo, bar manager of Maialino in New York City, teaches us all about tequila -- brought to you by Patrón Tequila. Sign up for a chance to dine at the next Patrón Secret Dining Society.
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Tequila may be the most maligned spirit in the world. Everyone has a tequila story, and most of them took place when we were too young to know better. But for the discerning drinker, tequila offers as much subtlety and complexity as fine whiskey. A part of the misunderstanding comes from a general lack of knowledge for what truly constitutes tequila, so in an effort to bring some justice to the underdog, here is everything you’ve wanted to know about tequila.
5 Conditions for a Spirit to be Tequila
• Made in the delimited zones around the city of Tequila, Mexico (near Guadalajara in Jalisco)
• Made from the Blue Agave (Agave Tequilana or Tequilana Weber Blue) plant
• Made with at least 51% Blue Agave spirit. Generally speaking, the higher the Blue Agave content, the higher the quality.
• Bottled in Mexico
• At least twice distilled
How Tequila is Made
Tequila is one of the most labor intensive spirits to make in the world.
The “Piña,” or root bulb of the agave cactus, is harvested, then cooked. The cooking method varies from producer to producer: they can be steamed, roasted, even buried over coals underground. The piñas are then juiced and the juice is fermented before being distilled in either pot or column stills -- again, the choice varies from producer to producer. The tequilas are finished by aging in wooden barrels; the amount of time aging changes what type of tequila is produced.
5 Categories of Tequila
• Blanco ("White") or Plata ("Silver"): Usually un-aged and bottled immediately after distillation, or aged less than 2 months in stainless steel or oak barrels
• Joven ("Young") or Oro ("Gold"): A mixture of blanco tequila and reposado tequila
• Reposado ("Rested"): Aged at least 2 months, but less than a year in oak barrels of any size
• Añejo ("Aged" or "Vintage"): Aged at least 1 year, but less than 3 years in small oak barrels
• Extra Añejo ("Extra Aged" or "Ultra Aged"): Aged at least 3 years in smaller oak barrels (600 liters or less)
What affects the end product?
• The ripeness of the agave (same as the importance of the ripeness of the grapes in making wine)
• The proportion of agave in the tepache (the fermented juice) -- there is less quality in mixtos (blends)
• Origin of the plants (The highlands make a sweeter and spicier tequila, while the lowlands make one that's more elegant and herbaceous.)
• The method used to cook the agave piñas (slow roasting brick ovens vs. autoclaves)
• Process of distillation
• Finishing (time of rest, origin of oak, lenth of oak-ing, toast of oak, etc.)
What's your favorite way to drink tequila? Sign up for a chance to dine at the next Patrón Secret Dining Society.