In a large Dutch oven or stockpot sprayed with cooking spray, cook onion over medium-high heat until translucent, about 3 minutes.
Add garlic, chili powder, and cumin and cook 30 seconds. Stir in broth and next 3 ingredients and bring mixture to a boil. Reduce heat and simmer 10 minutes.
Meanwhile, remove skin and bones from chicken and roughly chop meat into bitesized pieces. Add meat to soup, along with corn and beans and bring to a simmer. Adjust seasoning with soy sauce and pepper, to taste.