Roast the tomatoes. Preheat the oven to 400F and toss the tomatoes with the oil, salt, and sugar. Spread on a small sheet pan and roast for 15 minutes until slumped and just barely browned at the edges.
Meanwhile, make the croutons. Heat the butter and anchovy filet in a large skillet over medium heat. As the butter melts, stir the anchovy into the butter to break it up. When the anchovy has melted and the butter is foamy, add the bread cubes. Stir to coat in the butter, and sprinkle with the salt, pepper, and garlic powder.
Let the croutons toast in the skillet for about ten minutes, stirring every once in awhile to brown on all sides and dry the bread out somewhat. When the croutons are no longer squishy and very brown, sprinkle the parmesan all over the croutons. Stir to coat, and cook for 1-2 minutes more until the parmesan browns and coats the croutons.
Make the salad. Spread the kale on a large plate or shallow bowl. Squeeze the lemon juice over top and drizzle lightly with the olive oil (use more or less depending on your preference). Sprinkle with the parmesan and top with the tomatoes and croutons.