She Invented Banana Ketchup & Saved Thousands of Lives. Why Have We Never Heard of Her?

The legendary story of María Orosa, the Philippines' greatest war hero.

March 16, 2022
Photo by Manilla Bulletin

I’ve seen the look on my friends’ faces when the words banana ketchup are uttered. Confusion, maybe even disgust. How can two things with such different flavor profiles exist in one product? Despite its seeming incongruity, banana ketchup is a pantry staple that rings nostalgic to many Filipinos all over the world.

Magdalo V. Francisco, Sr. is credited with mass-producing banana ketchup in 1942, thus making it a fixture in the Filipino household. To this day it’s used as a condiment that accompanies many popular dishes such as tortang talong (an eggplant omelet), fried chicken, hamburgers, and Filipino spaghetti (pasta with banana ketchup and sliced hot dogs).

You can even find some refined versions of banana ketchup in modern Filipino cuisine. At Toyo Eatery in Manila, Jordy Navarra makes a “Banana Catsup” using fermented bananas, banana peel vinegar, banana blossom, tomatoes, and spices. True to tradition, he also serves his alongside tortang talong.

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But to truly understand the roots of banana ketchup, it’s important to understand the person behind the innovation, as well as the environment in which it was produced.

Her name? Maria Orosa.

As Chef Navarra says, “Growing up in Manila, we always knew the name of Maria Orosa as a pretty famous and busy street. After getting into food and learning about the history of banana catsup, we stumbled upon her story.”

A food chemist and innovator, Maria saw that the Philippines was heavily reliant on imports like tomatoes. At the same time, she understood and envisioned the vast potential of a great many products endemic to the island nation that, when used properly, could make the country more self-sufficient. She was passionate about a self-sustaining Philippines and made it her life’s work to study native food, and the use of fermentation and various preserving techniques to educate and uplift people in need. She would eventually become a war heroine through her food innovations.

One day, she created a banana sauce with mashed bananas, vinegars, and spices. The brownish-yellow color was not very appetizing, so a little red dye was added, turning it to what is today known as banana ketchup. But her story is far vaster than her most popular invention.

Maria moved to the United States at the age of 23 (some accounts say she was a stowaway). She was a government-sponsored scholar at the University of Washington in Seattle. There, she earned a bachelors and a masters degree in pharmaceutical chemistry, as well as one in food chemistry. During her education, Maria would spend her summer breaks working in the Alaskan canneries.

In the end, she earned a position as an assistant chemist for the state of Washington, but instead chose to return to the Philippines in 1922. Upon her return, she taught home economics at Centro Escolar University and would later transfer to the Bureau of Science organizing the food preservation division.

A humanitarian at heart, Maria had a vision of empowering the Filipino family. She launched Health, Heart, Head and Hand (4-H) Clubs. This organization brought herself and other educators into rural areas and barrios to teach women how to raise poultry and preserve food, as well as how to prepare and plan meals. By 1924, the organization had over 22,000 members. Part of her initiative was to introduce one of her inventions, the palayok oven—a clay oven intended for people who did not have access to electrical appliances.

She used her background in food chemistry to run experiments in fermenting, dehydrating, and preserving native plants and animals. The innovations that emerged are said to still be used in laboratories today. The ultimate goal? Make the Philippines more self-sufficient and sustaining.

Local fruits like tamarind, santol, and calamansi provided her with foundations to make wine, jams, and jellies. Cassava and green banana flour would replace the need for wheat. Coconuts would yield vinegars; she was the first to preserve macapuno, a jelly-like product of coconut that is used in Southeast Asia to this day. She was also the first to freeze mangos, enabling distributors to send the famous Filipino fruit throughout the world.

The Bureau of Science recognized her efforts and promoted Maria to head of the Home Economics Division and the Division of Food Preservation. Her work with the bureau would send her all over the world to research canning and preserving technologies.

She was passionate about a self-sustaining Philippines and made it her life’s work to study native food, and the use of fermentation and various preserving techniques to educate and uplift people in need.

Some of Maria’s most known contributions to the food world came during World War II. She was beloved within Filipino households for her banana ketchup, but became a war hero for her two other inventions: Soyalac and Darak. Soyalac is a protein-rich, highly nutritious powdered soybean product. Darak is a rice by-product that is high in B vitamins, thiamine, and vitamins A, D, and E (intended to fight the vitamin B deficiency disease, beriberi).

During World War II, Maria was a captain in Marking’s Guerrillas, a group of Filipinx soldiers who fought alongside the United States against the Japanese. Legend says that she devised a system for smuggling Soyalac and Darak in bamboo into Japanese-run concentration camps. These internment camps, which housed mostly Guerrillero and American prisoners of war, were known for poor sanitation and lack of food. Many would perish as a result of malnutrition. Freedom fighters disguised as carpenters would deliver Maria’s “magic food,” saving countless POWs and civilians.

Despite pleas from her family and colleagues to leave Manila during the war, she stayed until she was killed by shrapnel from fratricide in 1945.

Maria Orosa was a scientist, an activist, a humanitarian, and a war hero who loved her country and dedicated her life to uplifting the Philippines through food innovation. Many of her recipes and experiments were compiled by her niece, Helen Orosa del Rosario, in a posthumous book called Maria Orosa: Her life and Work. The book contains over 700 recipes, some of them unedited since Maria wrote them.

Banana ketchup, while probably the most beloved of Maria’s creations, is just a small part of her great and many contributions to food history. Her creations were intended to bring forth self-sufficiency and empowerment for her nation—and yet, in this day and age, it’s hard not to see that Maria symbolizes so much more.

As Chef Navarra says, “It’s amazing that she basically is the Filipina food hero. Ingenuity in a time of need which I think captures the Filipino spirit.”

How to Make Banana Ketchup

Instead of making banana bread with a bunch of mashed bananas, you can make banana ketchup just like Orosa. According to Serious Eats, start by sautéing a chopped small onion, a couple of cloves of minced garlic, a finely chopped jalapeño pepper, freshly grated ginger, ground turmeric, and ground allspice in a medium saucepan until everything is fragrant. 

To the mix, add 4 mashed bananas, white vinegar, honey, rum, tomato paste, soy sauce, and salt; bring everything to a simmer. Reduce the heat to low, cover the saucepan, and cook for an additional 15 minutes, stirring often. Remove the pot from the heat and let it cool for 10 minutes. Once cool, transfer the mixture to a food processor or blender and mix until it is super smooth and forms a ketchup-like consistency. If it’s too thick, add a little bit of water to thin it out, and add more salt as needed to taste.

Once you’re happy with the consistency and flavor, transfer the ketchup to an airtight container or mason jar and store it in the refrigerator for up to 2 weeks.

Where to Find Banana Ketchup

If you want to purchase a bottle or two of banana ketchup instead of making it yourself, stock up on Baron Banana Ketchup or Jufran Banana Sauce from our favorite grocers like Amazon Fresh or Umamicart.

This article was updated in March 2022 by our editors to spread even more love for María Orosa and banana ketchup.

See what other Food52 readers are saying.

  • Jaime Brockway
    Jaime Brockway
  • Stephen Orosa
    Stephen Orosa
  • MarZig
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  • Pbouvat
Food Stylist // Recipe Developer


Jaime B. July 3, 2020
I loved this article. What a life she led. I had never heard of banana ketchup or Maria before! Thanks for increasing awareness about this heroine story.
Stephen O. February 11, 2020
Dear Amelia Rampe,

I just want to share the below Esquire. This is regarding about Maria Ylagan Orosa, your featured personality article you wrote about.

"War Heroine Maria Orosa’s Grave Unearthed at Malate Catholic School
The rediscovery of Maria Orosa’s grave marker was an accident"

Yours truly,

Stephen Orosa
Amelia R. February 13, 2020
I follow Filipino news media closely and did see they found her grave! Very cool. Thank you for sharing! Are you of relation?
Stephen O. February 13, 2020
Yes I am. MYO is the older sister of my grandfather AKA great-aunt or grand-aunt.
Coffee B. November 15, 2020
Hello good evening, I'm Kyleen and we are currently making a historical paper. Our chosen topic is about Maria Orosa's inventions, particularly banana ketchup but we are lacking of primary sources. The late Maria Orosa did a big help in the middle of world war II that's why it is our chosen topic. I would like to ask for informations about her inventions, documents or any primary sources that we can use in our paper, thank you.
MarZig January 3, 2020
Good read. Now I need to try banana ketchup. Also she should be recognized posthumously by the US Government for aid she provided the POW's during WWII...
Mary-Ann November 24, 2019
Thank you for writing this article. I have yet to meet someone who does not delight in the taste and flavor of Banana ketchup. Aside from the obvious usage in fried food, it’s a key ingredient in barbecue sauces, stews, and marinades. We have tried to convince people that the golden yellow tinted sauce that comes from making ketchup from bananas is just as good without the red food coloring, but converts are few. I guess we eat with our eyes too.
Pbouvat November 24, 2019
It’s a known fact that many famous women - scientists, artists, etc. - have been buried in history for a good reason. Men wrote most of the books and articles and deliberately left women out. A few decades ago the art history reference books had to be rewritten to include women. This info was shared in an MLS Reference in the Humanities class years ago. During the Renaissance, the most famous women painters were also left out of the history books, until a long documentary on TV shared their stories. You tell me what’s going on!!
Lisa A. November 24, 2019
Thank you for sharing this article about this amazing woman! It's sad that so many accomplished women remain relatively unknown.
Joekerr M. November 12, 2019
Sadly we are arguing definitions.. the real issue is... food doesnt seem heroic. Sad but true these unrecognized but very important contributors to society never get the same recognition as firemen.doctors,soldiers etc etc. Most of what passes for history is horribly incorrect... much of this due to people fighting over definitions as opposed to what actually happened. Ive been arguing for over 30 yrs about how WW2 was really won...but people prefer to hear fantasies that simply dont make any sense- mainly because they just dont want to accept what happened. And here we have a similar issue- her work was groundbreaking and life saving but it didn't fit the narrative of some macho fighter standing tall....
99Percnt February 22, 2020
Without those macho fighters standing tall, food inventions are for naught. Get your priorities straight.
blisstree November 3, 2019
"Why have we never heard of her?"

Because here in the United States, our education system teaches us American history. If you want philipino history, I'd suggest you attend a philipino school.
kml606 November 4, 2019
This is American history. Please read what she did for the US POW.

During World War II, Maria was a captain in Marking’s Guerrillas, a group of Filipinx soldiers who fought alongside the United States against the Japanese. Legend says that she devised a system for smuggling Soyalac and Darak in bamboo into Japanese-run concentration camps. These internment camps, which housed mostly Guerrillero and American prisoners of war, were known for poor sanitation and lack of food. Many would perish as a result of malnutrition. Freedom fighters disguised as carpenters would deliver Maria’s “magic food,” saving countless POWs and civilians.
Axel L. November 4, 2019
Sounds like you ain't have enough lumpia in your life.
schuylersister November 6, 2019
There are plenty of Filipino people in the United States, and they've been a part of our history for more than a century, and as Maria's story intersects with American history quite often, this seems like an odd thing to say!
Pbouvat November 24, 2019
It’s a big world and we are starting to get to know other people; it’s good for us all to begin to know about heroes from other countries. Hopefully people from the Philippines hear a bit about American heroes. Let’s be kind and not have the entire human race offended that everyone does not know everything.
Marlene November 24, 2019
Km/606, Thank you for adding this information. She is a heroine and deserves recognition, whether Filipino or American. Learning about someone’s historical contribution shouldn’t be about their birth place, but rather about the accomplishment that makes them deserving of the title ‘hero!’
Tim K. December 13, 2019
filipino and us history runs together all over, from the sort of sad days after the war with spain to bataan and leyte gulf. the filipino immigration is still going on. here in new mexico and the sw usa we remember the role of filipinos in spanish america. wonderful, brite friends and cousins.

!que viva la maria orosa!

not to mention good food.

Sandra N. January 26, 2021
This is American history because the Philippines was a US colony from 1898 to 1946. It’s sad you don’t know America’s track record as an imperialist colonizer for much of the 20th century until today. Places labeled today as “US territory” like Puerto Rico and the Marshall Islands are technically colonies.
Sandra N. January 26, 2021
She was technically an American citizen because the Philippines was a US colony from 1898 to 1946, which includes Maria Orosa’s entire lifetime.
Bella95 November 2, 2019
What a wonderful woman. Her humanitarianism in the face of other safer or more profitable offers and opportunities is humbling.
gourmet B. November 14, 2019
99Percnt November 2, 2019
"Why Have We Never Heard of Her" Because there where hundreds and thousands of heroes in during the world and after. This is a great story and thank you for bringing it up, but let's leave the virtue signaling innuendo at the door.
gourmet B. November 14, 2019
But did those hundreds and thousands invent new foodstuffs that saved starving populations, though? Let's be real, 99%.
99Percnt February 22, 2020
Here's your good human award " ". Now you can tell everyone how good you are. By the way, you can tell people you got it from a minority and be telling the truth. You're a friend and ally. :P
Glenn J. November 2, 2019
I love banana ketchup! What a fascinating and moving story. It left me with a deeper appreciation of the indomitable spirit of the Philippines, it's rich history, and also with an urge to eat tortang talong (eggplant omelette with bananas ketchup) for breakfast tomorrow! Thanks for posting it.
Lyn F. November 2, 2019
It would really be great if you could share your references Ms. Ameliq.. This is a great reading.. Thanks..
greatpeople November 1, 2019
I love learning about history of many cultures. What a wonderful women. I'm African American and will share the story of Maria Orosa to my sons and ask my Filipino friends have they heard of her.
Nikky L. November 1, 2019
Thank you for sharing a history that gives me so much pride for
being a Filipina, and adding another depth to
our already rich culture!!!

John J. November 1, 2019
What a fascinating history! I shall recall it whenever I see banana ketchup, which is often. I am in a blended Filipino-American family., and banana ketchup is usually on the table.
NeverEverEverTrumper November 1, 2019
What a wonderful article. I'm sad to see the book is out of print.
Eric K. November 1, 2019
Me too.
SailingNewYorkCity November 1, 2019
This is a great story and very interesting. Thank you for sharing it and I hope others will read this inspirational story.

The question in the headline about why haven't we heard of her is rather strange. There are literally millions of people who have done interesting and even great things, but whom we have not heard of. This is the nature of human history. Thankfully there are many who bring these great stories to light, but the fact remains that history and society will continue to overlook many such people.
Eric K. November 1, 2019
I get your argument and like it, but it feels different when someone has directly influenced the literal saving of lives through an invention of their own.

It is unfortunate, you're right, that many people in history are overlooked—especially women. Which is why it's exciting to live in a time when their narratives are finally being uncovered by writers like Amelia Rampe who can give heroines like Maria the recognition they deserve.
Ritania F. December 14, 2020
WRONG INFORMATION Maria Orosa didn't invented the banana ketchup. Magdalo Francisco invented banana ketchup because there was a shortage tomatoes at the time of WWII that's why Magdalo V. Francisco Sr. invented the banana ketchup. And that's why it was named MAFRAN from his name MAgdalo FRANcisco.
Norlyn C. January 9, 2021
Maria Oroso invented the recipe for Banana Ketchup and Magdalo Francisco, Sr. Is the one that first commercially mass-produced the condiment.
A^19 November 1, 2019
Great article!
Joey S. November 1, 2019
That is why we have Mafran, coined from his name Ma gdalo Fran cisco. Our company is the mfr since the 90s.😊
Maria I. November 1, 2019
I'm so glad to had had a chance to learn about this remarkable woman! Thank you for the enlightenment.
I love banana ketchup and didn't know the history behind it. Thank you again