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The Very Best Way to Sharpen Your Knives

Millimeter-thin tomato slices coming right up.

June 10, 2022
Photo by Rocky Luten

Even the sharpest knife gets dull over time—the more you cook, the duller your most important tool becomes. It's only through regular maintenance that chefs and home cooks keep their blades sharp.

So how often should sharpen your knives? Well, the short answer is whenever they start to feel dull—which can vary depending on the quality of your knives and how often you use them. For most home cooks, this will likely be two to three times a year. Can your knife cut a tomato cleanly? If not, it's time to sharpen it. You can also use the paper test: Hold a sheet of printer paper up in one hand and try to slice it vertically. If you have trouble hacking through the paper, your knife could stand to be sharper. 

To sharpen your knives at home, you can use an electric sharpener or a whetstone (also called a sharpening stone). Electric sharpeners require little effort on your end, but stones are generally the preferred choice since they're gentler on blades, relatively inexpensive, and easy to use. Stuck between the two? Here’s how to sharpen your knives with electric sharpener and a whetstone.

How to sharpen a knife with a whetstone 

If you have a very nice knife, sharpen it with a whetstone. This one is relatively inexpensive for a kitchen tool and you'll get years of use out of it, too.  

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Sharpening stones come in different sizes and grits (the stone's level of coarseness), which are often indicated by color. Some stones have two sides: a coarser side for removing dents and sharpening very dull blades, and a more refined side for polishing and edge refinement. The rule of thumb is to always start sharpening your knife on the coarse side and then  moving to the refined side to finish. 

  • If your countertop is slippery, place a rubber mat or towel underneath the stone before doing literally anything at all—you really don't want to hurtself here!

  • Some stones need to be oiled or soaked in water first, so check the manual that comes with yours to be sure.

  • Once you're ready to start sharpening, flip over to the coarser side of the stone.  

  • Hold your knife with the edge of the blade facing toward your body at a 15 to 20 degree angle against the surface—this can vary slightly from knife to knife, so again, double-check the info that came with yours.  

  • Rest the fingers on the other hand on the flat side of the knife and push it away from you in one stroke, repeat about 10 times. Flip the knife over and do 10 strokes on the other side.

  • Test with a tomato or paper and,if it’s still not sharp enough, repeat until your knife is back to its former glory. That’s it!

How to sharpen a knife with an electric sharpener 

An electric knife sharpener is similar to a pencil sharpener—it simply obliterates the old edge and creates a new one. It's the fastest way to restore your blade to "health," but it’s also the most brutal. The edge of a knife is a carefully tapered compression of metal layers, so the thwacking sends the atomically aligned edge into disarray, or worse—it can chip tiny divots into the metal.

For the average knife, there are worse fates. But, if you happen to own a Japanese cold-forged sabatier, it'll be a sad (and expensive) day.

When to use a honing steel 

Once your knife is sharpened, you'll want to keep it that way for as long as possible. Try to get into the habit of using a honing steel every time you take out your knife. It kind of looks like a metal lightsaber and is basically like a short cardio excercise for your blade, aligning all of the metallic ions in the knife's edge so you can cut with ease and precision.

Hold the honing steel vertically against your kitchen counter and with your non-dominant hand. Then hold the knife nearly flat against the steel at about 22 degrees (think about it as half of 45 degrees), then draw it across the steel 10 times on each side. The steel won’t restore the edge to a dull knife, but it will help you keep an edge longer on a well-maintained knife.


This article was updated in January 2024 with our favorite products to keep knives sharp.

Do you prefer an electric sharpener or whetstone to sharpen your knives? Let us know below!


This post contains products independently chosen (and loved) by our editors and writers. As an Amazon Associate and Skimlinks affiliate, Food52 earns a commission on qualifying purchases of the products we link to.


See what other Food52 readers are saying.

  • J
  • Kenaimiller
  • Mar
  • Smaug
  • jeanne
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J February 25, 2023
Thanks for re-airing this article. And thanks especially to the commenters who have added so much more additional value! Oh my, I’ve used so many sharpening methods over the decades, beginning with the hand-held stone recommended by MK when I studied with her in 1970. She promised that the 8 and 10-inch Sabatier chef’s knives on which I spent a week’s paycheck—each—would last a lifetime. They did: 10 years in the kitchen, 40 years in the garden. Note to cooks: an inexpensive, handheld stone, is, however, absolutely invaluable when cooking in a church or community pantry kitchen! Oh my, how valuable that warped little tool has been on so many of those occasions! Not for MY knives (I’ve learned to bring my own and “no, sorry, I’m using it”) but invaluable for sharpening all of the other incredibly-dull knives in the kitchen! But I digress….I acquired a Chef’s Choice perhaps 6-8 years ago. Always, always I have religiously honed 20X with the steel before every single use. However, as I acquired Japanese-style knives, I noted that it the CC didn’t do the trick. Should I buy a more expensive model that pledged to do both? And then i noted that even my many (yes, many: I’m a home-cook knife addict: if you’ve read this thus far, you can relate!) Western-style knives were no longer making the Bob Kramer paper-cut test. I live in the middle of nowhere and I’m not going to entrust my precious knives to my local beloved hardware store for sharpening. So I resolved to use a holiday gift card to buy a whetstone kit but I’m still studying—so thanks so much to the author and commentators for helping with my research!
Smaug February 25, 2023
My Sabatier knives have held up (still in the kitchen) for 40 years and up; sadly, the company has not. Once producers of world class knives, they were apparently sold to someone who decided to burn the name selling low grade knife sets, a real shame. I asked someone in a kitchen store 10-15 years back if they carried Sabatier, and got a very curious look.
Kenaimiller January 22, 2023
I have to honest. I just send mine in to for sharpening. Great customer service and my Japanese knives came back without the chips in the blade. They also offer loaner knives if needed.
J February 25, 2023
And thanks, Kenaimiller, I’m also going to check out your recommendation for sharpening. It may be that the time has come to do that!
Mar May 1, 2021
Don’t forget the old superstition- if someone gives you a knife, you must give them a penny or they will have bad luck (or vice-versa, can’t remember which)!
Smaug November 19, 2020
I bought an electric sharpener several years ago- it did a good job regrinding a bunch of old beat up knives my mother had, but I haven't used it since. The Chef's Choice and similar manual sharpeners do a good job of rough sharpening and maintaining a bevel- you really only need stones for the final stages- producing a microbevel and polishing. Stones vary hugely- mostwoodworkers prefer the Japanese waterstones, but hard Arkansas stones (oilstones) are also very popular; I'd avoid generic stones or any that don't use a lubricant (water or oil), this is a poor place to save a few dollars. For most home cooks diamond stones are probably the best bet. They can be had in quite fine grades (by the way, Japanese and Western knives use completely different scales for the grits), don't need work to keep them flat (a big factor with waterstones, especially), cut fast and are generally easy to use. There are honing guides for straight blades, such as chisels and plane blades, that can make it much easier, but the curves of knife blades don't allow for them- you need to learn how to read and follow your knife's bevel.
jeanne March 4, 2015
watched the video on sharping knives. Wondering were can you purchase one of this stones?
stacy April 23, 2022
You can buy different tools for sharpening knives. For example here
vicky October 13, 2014
how does one sharpen serrated knives?! these are not demonstrated on the video!
chef.luis June 29, 2012
Since I'm an "scary sharp" fanatic, I'll add my humble 2 cents...
1) If you're interested in keeping your knives sharp without too much work, on a foolproof way, get a chefs choice electric sharpener (There is one model that sharpens western and Japanese blades)
2)If you want to get it up a few notches, get the edgepro sharpening equipment, you'll get almost professional results without the big learning curve involved in freehand sharpening, and you'll get "scary sharp" edges without scratching or damaging your knives.
3) My favorite... Freehand sharpening, get a set of at least 3 different stones (Coarse, medium and fine grit), a good strop, a nice ceramic honing rod and get ready to learn.
I'm a knife junkie and I enjoy big time to have a razor sharp (And I mean... really razor sharp) blade that cuts easy and clean thru veggies and meats. There is nothing like the sensation and the results of a nice sharp edge.
If you want to get serius in the subject , there are a couple of great suppliers of knives and sharpening gear one is chefknivestogo and the other is japaneseknivesimports both sellers are top notch and absolutely professionals . Best regards.
johndiggity June 28, 2012
The AccuSharp knife sharpener on Amazon is the best $9 I've spent. Totally idiot proof. The downside is it only works on Western-style knives.
sygyzy June 28, 2012
Bobby has some great advice. Before home cooks try their hand at sharpening, I would advise spending some time to read up on the topic and educate themselves on it before potentially messing up their expensive knives. If in doubt, get your knife sharpened by a professional and by that I mean someone who specializes in different types of knives and steels, not your neighborhood butcher. Also, please don't run your knives through electric machines that just mangle up your edge. Once your knife is sharpened, the best thing you can do for it is to use a honing steel to re-align the edge before or after each use. A steel does not sharpen an edge, it just brings things back in-line.
himynameisjs June 28, 2012
Great video--I love this series!

One question I've had for a long time but haven't ever gotten around to asking: what kind of knives does Amanda have? They're beautiful!
Kristy M. June 28, 2012
That knife was a gift from her brother-in-law. He brought it back from a trip he took to Japan -- lucky her!

She's also got knives by henckles and global in the kitchen. Also lots of gorgeous knives she's picked up over the years that don't have brand names on them.
bobby B. June 28, 2012
Great video. I think its important to add that the method shown should only be recommended for Japanese knives with a 50/50 bevel. Some japanese knives only have a one sided bevel or a 80/20 which changes how many strokes per side you sharpen.

Also non Japanese knifes like wusthof or henkels have softer steel, therefore the penny trick gets too shallow of an angle (approx. a 12.5 degree angle). By all means use a stone for non japanese knives, just stand up the knife for a 90 degreee, half it once for 45 degrees and one more time for about 22.5 which is closer to where you want to be to get lasting sharpness.
Amanda L. June 28, 2012
bobby - that's a very good point about the one-sided bevel. thanks for bringing that up!

i've had relative success using the stone on my western knives but i find it takes a little longer to sharpen or re-make the edge (if it's been completely dulled) since western blades are so thick. will try using the 90-45-22.5 sharpening method, thanks!
sygyzy June 28, 2012
You can also try adding a few coarser stones to your kit, such as a 500 or 700.