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HalfPint is a trusted home cook.
For jalapenos, size usually does not correlate directly with heat. I've eaten jalapenos of all sizes and sometimes there's heat in all of them and sometimes, no heat at all. It's a lot like Russian Roulette. The few years, every jalapeno that I bought didn't have any heat at all. I got so frustrated that I now get serranos if I want heat.
Trena is a trusted source on general cooking.
I agree with Halfpint re: the size of jalapenos not being a factor in predicting heat. If you are trying lower the heat of a jalapeno, simply remove the pith (the white part inside the pepper) and seeds. Also, wear gloves when you're chopping them to avoid burning the heck out of your eyes.
Andrea is a cooking teacher, food writer, contributing editor at Rodale's Organic Life, and a cookbook author; her latest book is The Banh Mi Handbook.
Um, size does not matter. I feel your frustration. Some jalapenos these days taste like green bell pepper. Yuck. Local farmers say that the heat level correlates with the weather. Warmer weather means hotter chiles. This time of the year, double down on the chiles, keep the seeds and membranes intact (near the stem) as the heat is located there.
For many plant fruits, the longer you let them grow on their vine the more likely they are to lose some sweetness. Because of the capsicum in peppers there will always be that Hoyt spicy ness but it won't be that well rounded of a flavor so if you just want spicy then get medium guys. Some peppers are likely to lose SOME heat the longer they spend on the vine. This goes for many plant fruits. Squash bell peppers even carrots