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I wouldn't go so far as to say you CAN'T, it's your kitchen, but it's' really not an appropriate substitution, the two are worlds apart. In general the large chiles are (more or less) mild and richly flavored; good subs for New Mexico would be California or Anaheim chiles, guajillos or (least similar but most available) anchos which are now sometimes sold as pasillas for some reason- they might also be called Poblanos, which is more properly the name for the fresh, green chiles. Pasillas wouldn't be a bad choice either, they're most often sold dried as "chile negro". If you can't find wholedried peppers, they are also sold powdered.
Chipotles are smoked jalapeno. A very different flavor. If you can't find New Mexico chile at your local store, you can get them online if you don't need them right away.