How to CookFrench

Fraisage Your Way to Flaky, Crumbly Pastry

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American-style pie dough—cutting fat like butter, shortening, or lard into flour, then adding water—comes with a lot of don’ts: Don’t let the fat melt. Don’t use room-temp or even just-cold water (it has to be ice cold) and don’t use too much of it. Don’t overwork the dough. Did I mention, don’t let the fat melt? Seriously, don’t, that’s so important!

These rules become engrained, eventually, but for most of my life, they scared me away from pastry. Then, a few years ago, while working as a middle-of-the-night baker, I was introduced to pie dough’s laissez-faire French cousin: the fraisage method.

A Professional Baker's Tips for Baking Pies Smarter, Not Harder
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A Professional Baker's Tips for Baking Pies Smarter, Not Harder

At the bakery, we likened it to a cat kneading a blanket, stretching its paws and claws outward, again and again. In this case, you are the cat. The blanket is shortcrust pastry dough. And instead of worrying about the butter staying in pea-sized pieces and not melting, you, well, don’t worry:

Make the dough in a food processor by pulsing together flour, salt, and butter pieces. Add ice water, splash by splash, until a dough just forms. Dump onto a lightly floured work surface, then smear outward with the heels of your hands. Aim for shallow strokes, pushing forward a small amount of dough—figure a couple tablespoons.

From the 1967 copy of "Mastering the Art of French Cooking." (Thanks, Grandma!)
From the 1967 copy of "Mastering the Art of French Cooking." (Thanks, Grandma!) Photo by Emma Laperruque

In Mastering the Art of French Cooking, Julia Child is all about the fraisage. She describes the motion as a way “to ensure an even blending of fat and flour.” So why, exactly, is this good thing? Doesn’t it go against all American-style-pie-dough rules? It does. But it also works—producing a different but just as indispensable pastry. Instead of the butter being cut into bits and bobs, which bounce here and there, it is spread into thin, long streaks. When these melt in the oven, they produce steam, creating a crust that is flaky and crumbly, crunchy and tender.

Fraisage anytime you’re making pâte brisée and pâte sucrée—so, any kind of tart or quiche—or if you’re making a free-form pie like a galette. These recipes are a perfect place to start:

Apple Galette with Tahini Frangipane & Honey-Hibiscus Glaze

Apple Galette with Tahini Frangipane & Honey-Hibiscus Glaze by Sarah Jampel

Lazy Mary's Lemon Tart

Lazy Mary's Lemon Tart by dymnyno

Slab Galette with Swiss Chard and Gruyère

Slab Galette with Swiss Chard and Gruyère by Alexandra Stafford

Butternut Squash and Roasted Garlic Galette

Butternut Squash and Roasted Garlic Galette by Lori Lyn Narlock

Have you ever tried the fraisage method? Tell us about the recipe in the comments below!

Tags: Pastry, Dessert, Bake, Tips & Techniques