Long Reads

Fiddlehead Fern: A Controversial Coil

Every week we get Down & Dirty, in which we break down our favorite unique seasonal fruits, vegetables, and more.

Today: we're talking about fiddlehead ferns -- learn what to look for, how to prep them, and get ideas for safely enjoying them in meals all week long.

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Did your mom ever tell you to eat your vegetables so you’d grow big and strong? Bet she never promised invisibility. In Europe’s Middle Ages, people believed that carrying “fern seed” would make you to disappear from sight. Shakespeare even referenced these magical powers in Henry IV

While we can't vouch for super powers, we can affirm that ferns are to thank for a fleeting spring treat. The term fiddlehead fern is generally used to reference ostrich fern fiddleheads, but fiddlehead actually refers to a stage of growth -- and the name fittingly comes from its resemblance to the scroll at the top of a fiddle. If you haven’t tried fiddleheads before, be ready for flavors ranging from asparagus to artichokes to green beans. 

What to Look For
If you're foraging for fiddleheads, take care to properly identify ostrich fern fiddleheads and always follow sustainable harvesting guidelines. Look for the deep groove (4) -- think of the shape of a celery stalk -- on the side of the stem facing the coil. Avoid ferns with an all-over fuzziness; ostrich fern fiddleheads are smooth, with brown papery bits that easily rub off.

When picking fiddleheads, choose small, firm, and tightly furled specimens. Pass on any that are starting to uncurl (1), or that are discolored (2) --  fiddleheads should be jade green (3). (Note: some fiddleheads will have a lot of the papery brown chaff, but once rubbed off, they are bright green.)

How to Store and Prep
Fiddleheads should be consumed shortly after you bring them home. If you have to store them, keep them in the fridge wrapped tightly in plastic wrap (5), and use them within a couple of days. They won’t spoil quickly, but they will lose flavor and firmness. For longer storage, try pickling. It's possible to freeze fiddleheads to extend their season, but Elizabeth Scheider advises against it. She finds they become fibrous and fishy, and prefers to “cherish them as vernal ephemera.”

Look for them at a farmers market or specialty grocer. The stalks are edible, although unless you’re picking them yourself, generally you’ll just see the coiled tops being sold. Give the fiddleheads a good rinse, then place them in a bowl of water and rub to remove all of their papery scale-like coverings.

More: Not sure where the closest farmers market is? Find one near you on Real Time Farms.

Consider This Fair Warning
When we say fiddleheads, we are strictly talking about ostrich fern fiddleheads, as they are considered the safest for consumption. People frequently forage for fiddleheads of other varieties like the lady fern or the shield fern, and consider them to be safe as long as they're cooked. Bracken fern fiddleheads are an especially controversial variety; many believe the ferns are fine to consume in small quantities, but they're known to contain a carcinogen.

Not to turn into Debbie Downer and ruin your meal, but we should also mention that raw and undercooked fiddleheads have been to blame for cases of food poisoning -- though not the ostrich fern variety you'll probably be eating. 

How to Cook
As a result of these cases, safety standards recommend boiling fiddleheads for 15 minutes or steaming them for 10 to 12 minutes prior to use in recipes. Of course, there is debate about this as well: John Mickel, senior curator emeritus at The New York Botanical Garden, suggests that cooking just 5 minutes is sufficient. 

Either way, your fiddleheads shouldn’t be consumed raw. Boiling fiddleheads will best retain their color and texture, and will help to remove any bitterness. In order to highlight their unique flavor, fiddleheads are arguably best prepared simply: boil, then lightly sauté with butter and finish with lemon. You can also think about using fiddleheads in the same ways you’d use asparagus or haricot verts. Of course we’re fans of gilding the lily, too -- so if you’re looking for more ideas, we’ve got you covered for the week:

Saturday: Fiddleheads and Cavatelli with Duck Confit
Sunday: Fern Curry with Shrimp
Monday: Fiddlehead Fern and Morel Salad
Tuesday: Fiddlehead Ferns with Brown Butter and Prosciutto
Wednesday: Spicy Sweet Fiddlehead Chickpea Pasta
Thursday: Steamed Fiddleheads with Horseradish Scallion Sauce
Friday: Salad of Morels, Fiddleheads, Ramps and Farro

What are your favorite ways to cook with fiddleheads?

Photos by James Ransom 

Read More:
Too Many Cooks: Forage For Your Life
How to Prep Asparagus
Down & Dirty: Asparagus

Join the Conversation

See what other Food52 readers are saying.

  • graciela_L_meneses
  • Efiya Fadila
    Efiya Fadila
  • Albert
  • rachaelmr
  • CorinnaB
I like esoteric facts about vegetables and think ambling through a farmers market is a great way to start the day. My first cookbook, available now, is called Cooking with Scraps.


graciela_L_meneses June 18, 2019
Hello everyone! I just came from San Francisco, California. This is the second time I visit this amazing and gourmet city, and this time I had time to check in the Ferry Building Market. The Far West Fungi, was the first store my husband and I stopped by. Fresh and dried mushrooms, such as morel, and porccini were the first attraction. The store is small but full with foods that I'm sure gourmands and chefs die for. I saw fiddlehead ferns for the first time, and I got very interested with these vegetables. I saw a guy buying them and I didn't loose opportunity to ask how to cook them: he kindly told me how. Today, I cooked the ferns to serve them as one of the two sides for a steamed-baked salmon, the other side was pak-choy with oyster sauce. I followed the gentlemen's instructions but I put my personal touch by adding roasted garlic infused in olive oil, fresh ground pepper, and chopped . The fiddlehead ferns became a delicious experience!! Gracias
Efiya F. April 30, 2018
I live in Indonesia and here we eat both types of ferns, the ostrich as well as the bracken. And I never hear anything about them causing food poisoning! Perhaps we're not too scientific about it. We love ferns in coconut milk soup or stir fried with sambal belacan or steamed in banana leaf wrapper with minced chicken or tempeh. I'm starting to drool just writing this.
Albert May 9, 2016
I just tried fidd legends for the first time and I read on here that you boil them for 20 min but I found out I cooked them to long cause they were mushy are they suppose to be mushy when I eat them ? Please help me on this
Author Comment
Lindsay-Jean H. May 9, 2016
No, I don't think they are at their best cooked to mush. As noted above, safety standards recommend boiling fiddleheads for 15 minutes or steaming them for 10 to 12 minutes prior to use in recipes.
rachaelmr May 13, 2013
i love a nice fiddlehead cream soup w/ crostini.
CorinnaB May 13, 2013
I agree with laurenlocally...what a GREAT TITLE!!
Author Comment
Lindsay-Jean H. May 23, 2013
Aw thanks Corinna!
Sandy O. May 11, 2013
Food poisoning is rather a strenuous term---if you don't boil/steam them for ten minutes, if you try to do the stir fry until crisp tender thing--the worst that happens is what my mother used to call the trots. Clean ya right out.
Kenneth M. May 10, 2013
Fiddleheads are delicious when roasted.
I was raised on fiddleheads... Love them with butter and vinegar! My ex was convinced I would poison myself if I ate them... as he was from England and only used to the Bracken variety.
Author Comment
Lindsay-Jean H. May 23, 2013
Butter and vinegar sounds great! I once got bracken fiddleheads in a CSA box, I'm glad I didn't know then that eating them was controversial, or I might not have tried them!
laurenlocally May 10, 2013
I triple heart this title Lindsay!!
Author Comment
Lindsay-Jean H. May 23, 2013
Thanks Lauren!