Pie Fats: Butter vs. Oil vs. Shortening vs. Lard

October 30, 2013

Inspired by conversations on the Food52 Hotline, we're sharing tips and tricks that make navigating all of our kitchens easier and more fun.

Today: The texture of your pie crust depends on the fat you use -- here's how to choose it.

Fats from Food52

Shop the Story

Do not fear the dough!

Pie crust is teasingly simple if you focus on the basics. To start with, most recipes are based on just four ingredients: flour, fat, salt, and water. Which fat you choose and how you manipulate it will play a huge role in the finished product -- so let’s break it down.

Making pie crust

First, it’s important to know how to handle the fat. It should be chilled (read: very cold). When it’s especially warm (outside or in your kitchen), it’s a good idea to pop it in the freezer so it doesn’t melt as easily. Also, know your hands -- if they run hot (chocolate melts as quickly there as it does in your mouth), then keep the butter on the colder side. If you have those cool pastry hands, just the fridge will work for you. 

Next, identify the type of crust you want. Flaky crusts are best for fruit pies. For cream or custard pies, a mealy crust is best (it won’t get soggy as the pie sits). Flaky crusts are made by leaving larger pieces of fat in the crust – the size of walnut halves or smaller. These large pieces of fat begin to evaporate moisture when the pie goes into the oven. This evaporation creates steam, and this steam forms air pockets in the crust, creating a flaky final texture. Mealy crusts are made by mixing the butter into smaller pieces -- the size of peas or smaller. Less evaporation occurs, making a tighter, firmer crust. 

Pie dough from Food52

Remember that warm ingredients, overmixing, and not enough chilling/resting time are the enemies of excellent crust. Taking your time with those three components will almost always ensure a good result.

Now, choose your fat.

Lard: If it doesn’t make you squeamish, lard makes an incredible pastry crust. It chills nicely and doesn’t break down under heat as quickly as butter. This makes for a relatively flaky crust if handled properly. While it’s not as tasty as butter, it’s flavor is still less bland than shortening or oil. 

Shortening: The fat of choice for pie baking in the fifties and sixties, shortening has a very high melting point, which makes it very easy to mix into pie crust. With less chance of overmixing and/or melting the fat, you’re better ensured flaky layers in your crust. However, while it’s the ideal ingredient from a texture perspective, it lacks the flavor of butter. 

Butter in pie crust from Food52

Butter: I try to be unbiased -- all pie is good pie. But for me, butter has always been the way to go. The flavor can’t be beat, and if you know how to handle it properly it can make a supremely flaky crust. Because butter has a higher melting point, it also melts nicely in your mouth. The milkfats present in the butter also allow the crust to brown more than shortening, lard, or oil-based versions.

Oil: Oil has one major benefit -- as a fat in liquid form, it can’t be melted and is easy to incorporate into dough. However, this same feature also keeps it from making a truly flaky crust. That being said, vegetable oil, coconut oil, or even olive oil can make a fine mealy crust for quiches or other custard pies. I also like using oil-based crusts for savory tarts.

Combo: My grandma swore by a combination of fats. Once upon a time, it was half lard, half shortening. Then it became half butter, half shortening. Either way, she liked mixing the sure result of shortening with the better flavor of other fats. 

What are your favorite fats for pie-baking? Let us know in the comments!

Apple pie from Food52

Photos by James Ransom

Food52's Automagic Holiday Menu Maker
View Maker
Food52's Automagic Holiday Menu Maker

Choose your holiday adventure! Our Automagic Menu Maker is here to help.

View Maker

See what other Food52 readers are saying.

  • sewgirl
  • Faye Smith
    Faye Smith
  • Bethany Broderick
    Bethany Broderick
  • Janey De lorenzo
    Janey De lorenzo
I always have three kinds of hot sauce in my purse. I have a soft spot for making people their favorite dessert, especially if it's wrapped in a pastry crust. My newest cookbook, Savory Baking, came out in Fall of 2022 - is full of recipes to translate a love of baking into recipes for breakfast, dinner, and everything in between!


sewgirl June 6, 2020
My best crusts are with 50/50 rendered lard/coconut oil leaveing lima bean sized chunks, part of a small egg, vinegar or lemon, more salt than you would think and cold water. Do not compact, just push together and chill well before rolling out.
Faye S. July 21, 2018
For those that use oil, can we have your recipe?
Bethany B. March 27, 2018
Oil works the best for me. Always comes out nice and flakey
Janey D. July 6, 2017
Totally agree with the author. The article has similar conclusions to the ones made here:
YIJU L. November 15, 2016
Hi Erin,have you try it with coconut oil for the crust dough?cuz if we chill the coconut oil in the fridge ahead, it would also as solid as butter which might be easy to work with,just wondering about this.
Brian P. January 6, 2016
I've always used shortening or shortening/butter combo. Was never happy w/ the shortening taste (and was out of it), so I tried coconut oil with 2T. of butter. The dough was quite hard after refrigeration (for roll-out) but the flavor and texture turned out great!
Gary December 30, 2015
I have always used my Mom's (from Betty Crocker I think) oil based recipe. I dont agree with article in that I think this is by far the best tasting crust. It is difficult to work with and probably not as flakey. But taste trumps those downsides.
Steven M. September 15, 2015
I have now switched over to oil based pie crust for everything. I don't know, I just like that texture better. I think it might be because of nostalgia for the Hostess fruit pies that I used to eat as a kid.
Craig O. October 19, 2014
Does anyone know where I can get leaf lard in the Los Angeles area?
Emilie October 20, 2014
I can't find good quality leaf lard where I live so order it from Dietrich's Meats in PA. They ship anywhere and their lard makes an incredible pie crust and biscuit. (I do half lard half butter.)
Craig O. October 21, 2014
Thank you, Emilie. I also lucked out and found a meat market nearby that is a reliable source of leafing lard and un-rendered lard.
Jay C. February 23, 2015
In LA, visit the Spanish markets and butcher shops. They carry lard. I usually buy it at Vallarta.
Joycene October 19, 2014
In recent years I have used 1/2 butter, 1/2 butter-flavored shortening. It makes a great crust with the butter adding great flavor. The butter-flavored shortening, I think, also adds flavor and makes for a lighter crust than all butter.
robert F. September 10, 2014
Julia used butter augmented with 1-2 tablespoons shortening......but for the perfect crust a low gluten flour is best.....pastry flour
Lizbeth C. April 7, 2014
In baking I prefer to use butter because it adds flavor to the pie crust or any food that has mixture of it and it is very well accustomed in baking pastries or cakes. kindly visit
lesdeva November 18, 2013
I like using both shortening and butter.
Craig O. November 12, 2013
I use butter and egg for fruit pies. Whisk the egg and add 3 tablespoons lemon juice or cider vinegar. To keep things cold, I store my flour in the freezer and refrigerate my mixing bowl. Cut the butter into peanut-size pieces and use as little cold water as needed to form the dough into an inch-thick disc, which I refrigerate at least two hours before rolling. I flatten the dough somewhat with my fist, roll it quickly and handle as little as possible.
Baketress November 1, 2013
Absolutely agree with the ladies below- butter and leaf lard combo! You get the best from the two worlds, exceptional flavor from butter and amazing flakiness from lard. I normally render about 8 pounds of leaf lard and it lasts me for a year.
Christina @. October 31, 2013
Half butter, half leaf lard. I've struggled with every version of pie dough I've tried (all butter, all shortening, butter and shortening, egg, no egg, grated frozen butter, using a food processor, cutting in butter by hand) until I used this combination with my grandmother's base recipe.

I actually did a whole experiment to see which combination of fats worked best, and the butter/lard won hands down, and has been reliably easy to work with, flaky, and tasty for every pie I've made in the past year:

Except now I don't know what I'll do if I can't get my hands on leaf lard :-(
Anne F. December 24, 2016
You can order it off, just as you can Tenderflake Lard. The Tenderflake is shipped from Montana; you can only buy it in Canada.
mrslarkin October 30, 2013
On Monday, I rendered 7 1/2 pounds of leaf lard. On Tuesday, I made the most amazing scallion pancakes. Can't wait to make some pie crust. And biscuits. And lard bread. And bizcochitos.
MaggieRosenthal October 30, 2013
For some reason it's never occurred to me to make a crust with oil. I have to admit, I'm a butter fan myself (easy to find in all stores/in my freezer and very flavorful), but this article makes me want to experiment with other kinds!
Alice G. October 30, 2013
I swear by all lard for a majority of my crusts. It makes the flakiest crust and has an incredible flavor for quiches and savory tarts, and I think it's a nice contrast to sweet fruit fillings. However, I will do a half lard-half butter crust for more delicately flavored custard and cream pies. The last time I used all shortening for a pie it tasted...artificial, and completely lacking in personality.
ChefJune October 30, 2013
For me, the best crusts come from a 50/50 combo of lard and butter. You get the flakiness of the lard with the flavor of the butter. Although I grew up in the 50's and made my first pies with shortening, I won't use it any more because of the health dangers of hydrogenated fat. Imho we get enough of it incidentally in prepared foods, No need to add it to my own cooking.