Hokkaido Milk Bread

December 23, 2021
21 Ratings
  • Prep time 4 hours
  • Cook time 30 minutes
  • Makes 1 tall (9-by-4-inch) loaf
Author Notes

When I first set out to make Hokkaido milk bread from scratch, I was nervous. These sky-high, snow-white loaves are the cornerstone of any respectable Asian bakery—feathery-soft yet rich and decadent, with wisps of bread that pull away in sheets when you separate its parts. For me, it was practically legendary.

To add to the mythos surrounding this lofty bread, I couldn’t find much in my research on traditional ways to make it, or even on its origins. Most recipes appeared to use tangzhong, a type of roux-like paste designed to give bread a finer crumb and a softer, fluffier texture. And many of them lead back to the Hokkaido Milk Toast recipe by Christine Ho, which is, in turn, based on a cookbook called 65 Degrees C by Yvonne Chen.

In the end, I tested three different recipes, and the one that won my heart was indeed the one I adapted from Christine’s. It was a dream to knead, shape, and bake, and the bread was just like I’d imagined: sweet, fragrant, and pillowy-soft. It’s good enough to eat plain and even better in sandwiches, but in my opinion, it’s best when toasted, lightly buttered, and smothered in sweetened condensed milk: the milk toast of my dreams.

Note: This recipe yields one loaf made in a 9-by-4-by-4-inch pan. Taller loaf pans are ideal; I used a Pullman without the lid. For those using the metric system or a bread machine, feel free to check out Christine’s original recipe (; hers will also yield two smaller loaves or one (13-by-4-inch) loaf instead of one (9-by-4-inch). —Cynthia Chen McTernan

What You'll Need
  • Tangzhong:
  • 6 tablespoons water
  • 2 tablespoons bread flour
  • Assembly:
  • 1/4 cup whole milk, plus 1 splash for the egg wash
  • 1 1/2 teaspoons active dry yeast
  • 2 1/2 cups (about 320 grams) bread flour, plus up to ¼ cup (30 grams) more
  • 1/4 cup sugar
  • 1 teaspoon kosher salt
  • 1/4 cup heavy whipping cream
  • 1 tablespoon sweetened condensed milk or milk powder (optional)
  • 2 large eggs
  • 2 tablespoons unsalted butter, softened, divided
  1. Prep the Tangzhong: In a small saucepan, whisk the water and flour until no lumps remain. Heat over medium-low heat, whisking constantly, for 3 to 5 minutes, until thickened to a gel-like consistency. As soon as lines appear in the mixture when stirred, remove the pot from the heat and transfer the mixture to a small, clean bowl. Let cool to room temperature.
  2. Assemble the Bread: Heat the whole milk to just above room temperature, about 110°F or lukewarm to the touch (I do this simply by microwaving it for 10 to 15 seconds). Sprinkle the yeast over the milk; set aside for 5 to 10 minutes for the yeast to activate (you’ll see the milk start to foam).
  3. Meanwhile, in a large bowl, whisk 2½ cups of the flour and the sugar and salt. In a small bowl or a measuring cup, whisk the tangzhong, cream, condensed milk, and 1 of the eggs.
  4. When it’s ready, add the yeast mixture to the tangzhong mixture and whisk gently just to incorporate. Make a well in the center of the dry ingredients and pour in all of the wet ingredients. Stir with a wooden spoon until the mixture forms a loose, shaggy dough, then switch to using your hands. Knead for 4 to 5 minutes, until the dough forms a semi-smooth ball. The dough will be quite sticky—1 tablespoon at a time, sprinkle the remaining ¼ cup of the flour over the dough and your hands as you knead to keep it from sticking too much. I usually use at least 2 tablespoons and often up to the full amount, but you may not need it all.
  5. Add 1 tablespoon of the butter to the dough, kneading to fully incorporate before adding the remaining 1 tablespoon of the butter. The dough will be slippery and messy at this point, but just keep kneading (actually, it’s oddly satisfying), and it should eventually form a soft and pliable dough that’s easy to work with. Knead for 4 to 5 minutes more, until the dough becomes smooth and elastic.
  6. Place the dough in a large bowl with plenty of room; cover the bowl with plastic wrap or a damp towel. Let rise for 1 to 2 hours, until doubled. Alternatively, you can let the dough proof overnight in the refrigerator, which I prefer. It gives extra time for the gluten to develop and yields a better flavor, in my opinion. Plus, dividing the labor over 2 days makes the process much more manageable. The dough should be fine for up to 24 hours. If storing in the refrigerator, cover more tightly with plastic wrap to avoid drying out, but don't seal completely (an airtight seal can sometimes cause an alcohol-like smell to build up in the dough).
  7. Once the dough is doubled, turn it out and punch it down. Divide into 3 or 4 equal pieces. For each piece, roll out the dough to a long oval. Fold the oval into thirds widthwise, then flatten again. Roll the dough up lengthwise, then place into the loaf pan. Repeat with the remaining pieces.
  8. Let the dough rise again for about 1 hour, until nearly doubled. After about 40 minutes, heat the oven to 350°F. When the dough seems ready, test it by pressing it gently with one finger; when the indentation bounces back slowly but remains visible, the dough is ready to bake.
  9. Whisk the remaining egg with a splash of milk or water. Brush the egg wash over the dough. Bake for about 30 minutes, until golden brown on top. (If your heating element is at the top of your oven and the bread begins to brown too quickly, cover with foil to prevent burning.) When ready, the bread will sound hollow when tapped. Let cool slightly, then slice and enjoy!

See what other Food52ers are saying.

  • passpartout
  • katktdenada
  • Sepe Doll
    Sepe Doll
  • Zoey Wei Le Deng
    Zoey Wei Le Deng
  • paulifaktorbakes

101 Reviews

Julia H. February 19, 2024
Excellent recipe! When I lived in JapanI, I had one toast every morning. I miss the milk bread from Japan. I have been looking for a good Tangzhong recipe, this is great!
I used 1/2 wheat flour+ 2 cups bread flour to create a healthier wheat bread. When cook the 湯種 Tangzhong, I used wheat flour as well. The bread turned out great! 1/4 sugar a bit sweet. So I used 2 TB organic brown sugar + 2TB honey. Try the new twist! Thank you for your recipe sharing! BTW: I never bake with gram, too much work! use the cup measurement just fine!
Beth December 31, 2023
I've made this and similar recipes many times. I make the roux in the microwave, stirring every 30 seconds until the right consistency. Then into the bread maker it goes on dough cycle, since I can't stand and knead it. When first rising is done bread maker turns off then I shape it into rolls or loaf and proceed to end.
Interesting note: You mentioned using this bread for milk toast. When I was a kid I had stomach issues and my mother would make milk toast until I felt better. The last day she poached an egg in the milk and poured it over the toast. I'd spread the yolk over the milky bread to eat - yum! I tried this the other day, but somehow it didn't taste quite as good as I remembered. Of course that was a long time ago, I'm almost 91 now!
Pambend November 27, 2022
Recipe is awesome. Why not list ingredients in grams? This is after all a food website.
Kt4 November 27, 2022
What does this being a "food website" have to do with listing in grams? This is a worldwide group so people post in measurements *they* use.
Pambend November 27, 2022
Fine, so use ounces. You miss the point. Measurements when baking NEED to be accurate.
Smaug December 7, 2022
In the first place, the only ingredient where weights have any advantage is flour- though it's not hard to measure flour accurately by volume- and that does give grams. In the second place, measurements in baking need to be precise in a few cases where balances will affect structure, but there's usually plenty of leeway. I almost never measure anything but the liquid when making bread; better to have an understanding of the process which will let you know when a step is complete. Things like the strength of the yeast, temperature, humidity, type of flour, differences in the liquid used (such as hardness of water)
receptacles used, practically everything will make the outcome variable.
Pambend December 7, 2022
I’m sorry for your ego issue.
Smaug December 7, 2022
If you wish to refute the statement, try coming up with some sort of a cogent argument. Vague insults are hardly helpful, as well as being contrary to Food52 policy.
chie September 8, 2022
Disappointed about the milk part. I come here for the Hokkaido milk, not regular whole milk bread. Heavy cream probably add the creaminess to it, but it is not going to taste same.
passpartout July 16, 2022
Great recipe. I bake VERY infrequently, and can never believe the whole process of bread making will actually work. I followed the recipe exactly as written, and the result is a delicious loaf of bread, with a beautiful texture.
Deirdre D. February 11, 2022
A great recipe. I followed as written except I had not heavy cream and just used whole milk. Soft and delicious! I did the overnight proof with great success!
food November 4, 2021
This is the best bread I have ever made! The texture is so soft has great chew easy to make. THANK-YOU
winsonlaw April 20, 2021
I've made a few milk bread recipes so far from Cynthia, America's Test Kitchen, and King Arthur Baking. While I love all of them, Cynthia's is far the fluffiest and easiest to make with consistent results. It's a joy to make, watch come a fully adult loaf, and eat with a spread of jam or pressed with cheese in the middle.
Michelle November 12, 2020
Hi Cynthia, Thank you so much for this recipe and for including the link to the photos. Question: If I want to make this in a stand mixer, what do you recommend I do as far as approximate kneading speed and time? How can I tell it's done kneading? Should I add the butter only by hand or is it okay to also do by stand mixer? Thank you!
TDeu August 28, 2020
Cynthia, thanks so much for sharing this recipe and being so explicit. I’m new to bread making and this came out PERFECT!

If you’re debating whether to make this or not. Just make it, trust me, you won’t regret it! I didn’t make any changes to the sugar and it came out amazing. Also, “let it cool slightly”?! lol. Good luck with that!
katktdenada July 2, 2020
It really makes a difference to let the dough cold rise overnight or start it morning and it will rise by dinner time. It’s such a good base recipe. I folded in Ube Jam or red bean or sweet onion jam—- it’s fantastic. Tweaks— is that I did not have whipping cream so I nixed the milk and cream and did 1/2 cup of half and half instead. Just as great if not better!
And 6 tbsp of water is not enough to dissolve the tangzhong gel/paste so you gotta add 6tbsp more liquid (water or milk).
xanmama July 1, 2020
Hi! Can I use the lid with my 9 by 4 inch Pullman pan? If yes, how should I do my last proof? As in how do I proof it such that I can have the lid on prior to baking and also know when the bread will be done since the lid is on during baking? I just got a loaf pan with lid to try since I’ve always made mountain top bread. Hope you can help! :)
CApam June 30, 2020
Awesome recipe! I’ve made this bread two times in two days (one for me, one to share with my parents): that’s how good it is. I’ve tried using Christine’s recipe as referenced in the author’s overview, but I was not as successful then. Like paulifaktorbakes mentioned below, I really appreciate the notes on texture/stickiness at each stage. My additional note: make sure to butter your baking pan really well before adding the dough for the second rise! I used a 9”x4”x4” Pullman pan, without the cover, baked for 30 minutes.

The only change I made to the recipe was to decrease the sugar down to 2 TBS, which yielded the perfect taste for my preferences.
Sepe D. May 31, 2020
Hi! If I double the recipe, will it fit a 14x4x4 pan? Thank you!
CApam June 30, 2020
A 14x4x4 pan is about 1.6 times the volume of a 9x4x4 pan, which Is what I used; the bread rose about an inch above the pan line (as I didn’t cover it). Maybe you can double the recipe, but remove a third after the first rising to shape into rolls and bake in a separate pan.
Zoey W. May 16, 2020
Hi! When doubling the recipe, do you just double all of the ingredients? Should I expect to add 60 grams more flour (instead of 30g) during kneading. Any help is appreciated!
Cynthia C. May 16, 2020
Hi Zoey, yes, just double all the ingredients! For adding extra flour, I would go by feel while kneading, rather than measuring out how much more to add. I add about a tablespoon at a time, sprinkling over the dough and my hands, just to keep the dough from sticking too much. I often do not add all of it. I hope that helps!
Noah May 17, 2020
Only if needed. If the dough is not sticky u might not even need flour at all ;)
paulifaktorbakes April 13, 2020
first, thanks so much for making this recipe so accessible Cynthia! I get nervous baking new thing, and really appreciated your description of how the dough will be sticky, but with the butter worked in, will become what it needs to. It did! It was so so gratifying. I love baking challah bread, but this was my first time making a tangzhong. I'm about to bake it, and already can't wait to try making this again. One question: I squeezed the base of the ovals together; is this necessary or just side by side enough to create that milk bread pull-apart but together consistency?
Noah May 17, 2020
Would u share ur favorite challah bread recipe.?
I would love to try it.
paulifaktorbakes May 20, 2020
I’d be delighted to! I use Joan Nathan’s “My Favorite Challah” recipe. I increase the eggs from 4 to 5. And sometimes sneak in an extra tablespoon of sugar :) Let me know if you have any questions!
Cynthia C. May 20, 2020
This makes me so happy! Thank you for such kind words. As for squeezing the ovals together, I shouldn't think this is necessary as long as the pan is snug enough--the four pieces should meet as they rise and that's enough to form that "pull-apart" effect. I can't wait to try the challah recipe you mentioned!
Srivani M. April 9, 2020
Can I use APF as I don’t get bread flour at my place.
Cynthia C. May 16, 2020
Hi Srivani, sorry for the delay in replying! APF should work, the bread just may rise a bit less and perhaps have less developed strands in the crumb. Hope you enjoy if you try it!
Noah October 19, 2019
perfect recipe i have worked with over the years, i bulk it up and split between bread, donuts, steamed bread.
Cynthia Z. July 6, 2019
The best bread recipe! Tangzhong is truly a godsend. It yields a heavenly soft bread with a flavorful, chewy crust, and helps keep the crumb soft and moist for several days at room temperature. The enriched dough with butter also makes the dough easier to knead, though I do recommend a bench scraper to get the bits that stick to your counter.

I've made this multiple times in the past week, taking the sugar down to 2tbsp as recommended by others in the comments. The recipe doubles easily, and can be adapted to different configurations. I've made the standard loaf shown in the article, but I've also made buns (10-12 buns per recipe) and 3 mini loafs. Baking smaller loaves/buns takes the cook time down to about 20-22 minutes at 350F.

The bread also takes on fillings/add-ins beautifully. I made a coconut filling (1 cup sweetened coconut, finely shredded; 2 tbsp cake flour, 2 tbsp milk powder, 2 tbsp softened butter, 1/4 tsp salt) and just added it when I rolled and folded the dough pieces. The coconut filling goes great with the buns, too.

I have also added raisins (about 1/2-3/4 cup per loaf), and the bits of sweetness complements the bread very well. I also add them when I am rolling and folding the dough pieces for more even distribution.
LULULAND July 6, 2019
Thanks for your advice! Do I have to use bread flour? I have all purpose flour would love to use that.

Zoey W. May 16, 2020
Do you double the ingredients to make more dough? Thanks!
Noah May 17, 2020
Jyothi M. May 7, 2019
Perfection! I halved the quantity. of the sugar based on earlier comments. And I think it needs a few more minutes in the oven but will be making this often. Thank you