How to Make Chinese Steamed Buns from Scratch

It's always more fun to DIY. Every week, we'll spare you a trip to the grocery store and show you how to make small batches of great foods at home.

Today: Whether you like your Chinese buns plain or filled, steamed or pan-fried, sweet or savory, Cynthia of Two Red Bowls is here to show you how to make them at home. 

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As any Chinese auntie can tell you, steamed buns (called mantou when plain and baozi when stuffed with filling) are a Chinese staple. That much is clear from their endless variations: From Cantonese char siu bao and egg custard lau sa bao, to the works of art that are these steamed scallion rolls (huajuan), steamed buns are ubiquitous in Chinese cuisine. 

More: Joanne Chang's Hot and Sour soup is the perfect accompaniment to Chinese buns.

One of my favorite takes on the bun is a Shanghainese specialty called shengjian bao, made by taking regular pork-filled steamed buns and pan-frying them in gigantic woks. The result is a fantastically crisp and flavorful bottom crust paired with a bun that is still as fluffy and soft as ever.

This recipe begins with a blank canvas for plain mantou, based on my mother’s recipe. It’s beautifully simple, with just six ingredients.

From there, you can do a few (or a lot of) things. If you’re just looking for a side of rolls with dinner, you can stop after the dough has had its first rise, roll it into a long cylinder, slice it into 1-inch pieces, and steam as is. (I used a traditional bamboo steamer for these, but you can also use a metal steaming tray fitted to a pot or a steamer tray for a rice cooker or slow cooker. In a pinch, you can even set a metal colander with feet inside a pot of water or use another makeshift steaming method.)

Or, you can follow the recipe below to make pork and vegetable steamed buns, with an option at the end to fry them at the end and turning them into my favorite shengjian bao.

Finally, if dessert is more your speed, just replace the pork filling with some of this red bean paste, or any sweet filling you desire. (Peanut butter and jelly steamed buns, anyone?) Finally, a note on flour: For the purest white steamed buns, use bleached flour. For a finer, fluffier bun, replace one cup of all-purpose flour with cake flour.

Panfried Pork Steamed Buns (Shengjian Bao)

Makes 18 to 24 buns

For the dough

2 1/4 teaspoons (1 packet) active dry yeast
1 cup milk (any kind will do)
1 tablespoon oil
3 cups all-purpose flour
1/2 teaspoon salt
3 to 4 tablespoons sugar (less if you prefer a more savory dough)

For the filling

1 pound ground pork
1 cup chopped leafy vegetables, like cabbage or bok choy
1 tablespoon sugar
2 tablespoons soy sauce
1 tablespoon sesame oil
1 tablespoon shaoxing rice wine (if unavailable, you can use sake or mirin)
1 teaspoon grated ginger
2 stalks green onion, minced
2 to 3 garlic cloves, minced
1/4 to 1/2 teaspoon salt
2 tablespoons cornstarch (optional)

Warm the milk and oil in a pot over low heat until it is lukewarm but not hot. The milk should feel comfortable to the touch. Remove the pot from heat and pour the mixture into a bowl. Sprinkle the yeast over the liquid and let it sit for 8 to 10 minutes.

Sift together the flour, salt, and sugar. Slowly trickle the yeast liquid into the flour, mixing with a spatula or a chopstick as you go. (You can also just alternate between pouring and stirring.) Once all the liquid has been poured in, knead for 10 to 15 seconds until the dough comes together.

Turn the dough out onto a floured surface and knead it until smooth, at least 4 to 5 minutes. Place the dough in a large, greased bowl, cover, and let it sit for 1 to 2 hours, or until doubled in size. I prefer a slower, cooler rise, but you can do whatever you’re used to.

When the dough is almost done with its rise, mix together the ingredients for the filling -- pork, vegetables, sugar, soy sauce, sesame oil, rice wine, ginger, green onion, garlic, and cornstarch -- until well-incorporated.

Next, punch down the risen dough. Turn it onto a floured surface again and knead for just a few strokes. If the dough is too sticky, add more flour. Pinch or cut off a ping pong ball-sized piece of dough and roll into a flat circle about 3 inches in diameter. Place about a tablespoon of the pork mixture into the circle and fold the dough up around the filling, pinching and pleating in a concentric circle until the top is sealed. It doesn’t have to be perfect -- you can always place it seam-side down for a smooth and uniform top. I’m far from a pleating expert! In my experience, a thinner dough is easier to pleat, but will, of course, result in a thinner bun.

Place the finished buns on a baking sheet and cover with a damp towel to keep them from drying out as you fold the others. You can let the buns proof again at this point if you like, but I find that the second rise is somewhat built into the process -- since pleating the buns takes some time, the buns I prepare first have usually had time to rise again by the time I’ve finished pleating the last ones. On top of that, you’ll likely have to steam these in several batches, so even the buns you prepare last will have proofed by the time the first ones have steamed.

When you’re ready to steam the buns, line your basket or steaming tray with a circle of parchment paper. Place the folded buns at least two to three inches apart inside the tray. They will expand significantly, so give them some room. I only steamed about three or four per tray.

Fill a wok (or pot or rice cooker, depending on what you’re using) with about an inch or two of water and bring the water to a simmer over medium heat. After the water has begun to simmer, set the basket over the water, covered, and steam for about 15 minutes, or until buns are resilient when touched and the filling inside is cooked. Make sure to refill the water between batches, as it will likely evaporate during the boiling. You may also need to adjust the heat to low as the water boils -- a low simmer is all you need.

To fry: Pour a generous amount of oil into a large wok or saucepan -- enough for at least 1/4 inch of oil at the bottom. Turn the heat to medium and wait a few minutes to let the oil heat up. Turn the heat down to medium-low or low and place the steamed buns in a single layer in the wok and let sizzle for 2 to 3 minutes, or until golden brown.

If the oil is sizzling too violently, turn the heat down or off for a couple of minutes until it calms down, and keep a close eye on the bottoms of the buns. I like to keep the heat lower because it doesn’t matter if the buns take a bit longer to fry up, but it’s a bummer if they burn. Once they are browned on the bottom, remove the buns from the pan and drain them on paper towels. Let them cool slightly, then eat while still crisp and warm.

Serve with an optional dipping sauce: My favorite is a simple sauce made from 1 part soy sauce and 1 part chili garlic sauce, but you can use whatever you like best.

See the full recipes (and save and print them):

Photos by Cynthia of Two Red Bowls

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See what other Food52 readers are saying.

  • Eileen
  • Megan Clark
    Megan Clark
  • Kawatapuarangi Maxwell
    Kawatapuarangi Maxwell
  • Connie Tucker
    Connie Tucker
  • PamiHoggatt


Eileen November 3, 2018
can i use hong kong flour which stated bao. what the outcome?
Author Comment
Cynthia C. November 6, 2018
Hi there! There are lots of bao recipes out there calling for Hong Kong flour, and I hear it is actually the best for the softest, tenderest bao so I'm jealous that you have access to it! That said, I've never tried it in my recipe so I don't know whether you might need a bit more flour, etc. and can't guarantee that it would work. I think it should, so if you do try it, I'd love to hear how it goes!
Megan C. October 9, 2015
Can I use high gluten flour for the dough?
Kawatapuarangi M. August 24, 2015
Thank you very much for the recipe, this will save a lot of money and yes there goes my waist line!! But thank you very much...
Connie T. February 18, 2015
I fondly remember a pork filled bun made with dough that contained glutinous rice flour. A Chinese neighbor showed me how to make them many moons ago and I had not taken any notes. Anyone know anything about that kind of dough, which was also steamed and then fried? They were a little sweet and had very pleasant chewy consistency.
PamiHoggatt August 12, 2014
If I make this tonight, would I be able to save any extra buns without steaming them and keep them on the baking sheet covered with a damp towel in the fridge overnight? Just thinking that by the time I make the dough, prove the dough and then make the dumplings it will probably be too late to steam them too since it's a weeknight. Great recipe though, can't wait to try it!
Laura415 August 12, 2014
@Pam You might be able to raise them slowly in the fridge overnight or they might get overproofed and not work the next day. That would be a great experiment. I have tried various methods for saving uncooked dough and if you want to do the buns from the fridge I would just rise the dough in the fridge in a container and fill and shape the buns when you are ready to steam. That way they take up less room and will be less likely to form a skin that may inhibit their rise later while steaming. I've read a few bao recipes and many say that re-steaming buns works fine. I have made plain bao with no filling and re-steamed them the next day with no problem. You can also do that with frozen filled buns too. Good luck with your experiments:)
Laura415 July 29, 2014
Interesting recipe:) especially the frying part. I will try it with your proportions but I was just playing around and I made bao shapes with my regular bread dough (flour, milk, water, yeast, sugar, salt, tiny amount of butter) and steamed them and they came out awesome. Tender springy and steamed through. No wrinkly skin or sticking parchment. It may be beginners luck tho. My friends are fanatical about bao and they often have higher expectations and more problems. The only thing I did that they probably didn't do is use spelt flour. It is a lower protein/gluten flour so maybe that did the trick. They weren't white but that doesn't bother me. I'm going to make mock banh me with them right now. Yum.
imryan23 May 19, 2014
I really want to make these, but I'm realistic about my free time in the kitchen. Can I buy the dough circles at an Asian market? If so, what would I ask for?
gugs May 16, 2014
Do you think it's possible to sub the milk for a non-dairy substitute like water or rice milk?
Author Comment
Cynthia C. May 16, 2014
Absolutely! This dough will work just as well with water, and in fact a lot of recipes call just for water (one in particular from a classic Sichuan cookbook, Mrs. Chiang's Szechwan Cookbook). I don't know how a non-dairy milk would work, though -- if you get good results, I would love to hear!
Alea October 10, 2014
I just made the dough with almond milk and it turned out fine, no problems at all (filled it with a sweetened black bean filling...regular american black beans because no time to go back in time and cook the red beans my husband bought as I was making the dough and no red bean paste)
ChefJune May 16, 2014
Omigosh, I love steamed pork buns. They were part of the first cooking class I ever taught! Never thought about frying to reheat, but I'd probably like them even better that way.
Brooklyn S. May 16, 2014
Awesome! Has anyone tried freezing these for later use?
Author Comment
Cynthia C. May 16, 2014
I've had good results freezing leftover steamed buns :) Just reheat by zapping in the microwave with some damp paper towels, or re-steaming for 10-12 minutes. I haven't tried freezing any uncooked buns, though.
Lisa May 19, 2014
I have made these and always double or triple the batch and freeze (before cooking). I use a steam/fry combination of cooking and don't even thaw before cooking. If using pork, cut into one before frying to make sure the meat is done all the way... You will need to steam them a bit longer if cooking from frozen.
stephanie L. May 16, 2014
These are so, so gorgeous Cynthia! I see baos in my future :D
Callista L. May 16, 2014
Hi, for fry option - are you still steaming them first?

Thank you - can't wait to try! :) If I go to the trouble of making dumplings, this can't be much more!
Author Comment
Cynthia C. May 16, 2014
Yep, I still steamed them first -- I also find frying them is a great way to reheat leftover steamed buns the next day :) But I've seen some methods similar to panfried dumplings, where the buns are first fried, then water is added to the wok and the wok is covered to finish cooking by steaming. Here's one (and I've had great luck with Christine's recipes in the past, though I haven't tried this one):

Sounds easier, to be honest!! I just steam first because it's a little less splattery, and for some reason in my mind more predictable? :)
Callista L. May 16, 2014
Thank you I will check it out!
And yes, pan fried dumplings can be very "splattery" :)
Joy H. May 16, 2014
If anyone's interested, here's a small video that I took of my friend pleating a baozi:
Joy H. May 16, 2014
Oops, if that link doesn't work it's:
Lindsey S. May 16, 2014
i'm drooling over how doughy these look! lovely, lovely!
Sini |. May 16, 2014
Ooooh! I really should start making mantou and baozi at home. It doesn't look _that_ difficult. Really lovely article, Cynthia!
Author Comment
Cynthia C. May 16, 2014
Yes!!! It really isn't at all -- the quintessential pantry recipe, especially the mantou. Easy peasy. ;) Thanks, lady <3
molly Y. May 16, 2014
Author Comment
Cynthia C. May 16, 2014
I can NOT stop dreaming about bacon & eggs in baozi Molls!!