How to Make Natural Food Coloring - DIY Food Dyes Tutorial

Kitchen Hacks

How to Make Natural Food Coloring From Ingredients in Your Kitchen

February  3, 2020
Photo by Mark Weinberg

When it comes to food coloring, I’ll happily take the natural route whenever possible. There are so many beautiful hues in food, so why not use them? Especially for decorated cookies and cakes, I love to DIY. If you want to try it yourself (do it!), read on for our best tips and recipes.

Pro Tips for Natural Food Coloring

1) Choose the source of color.

Sources for natural colorings can be found all over the place, and many may already be in your pantry or fridge. More on how to turn these ingredients into food coloring below, but here are my favorite sources for certain colors. (The ingredients I used in this post are in italics.)

  • Pink: strawberries, raspberries
  • Red: beets, tomato
  • Orange: carrots, paprika, sweet potato
  • Yellow: saffron, turmeric
  • Green: matcha, spinach
  • Blue: red cabbage + baking soda
  • Purple: blueberries, purple sweet potato
  • Brown: coffee, tea, cocoa
  • Black: activated charcoal, squid Ink
Photo by Mark Weinberg

2) Consider the flavor.

One thing that natural food colors have—that commercial colors don’t—is taste. Because the color comes from real food ingredients, a small amount of flavor will remain in the final icing. The more color you add to the frosting, the more it’s going to taste like that ingredient. This may not matter much for ingredients like fruit, matcha, coffee, or cocoa, which are commonly used in baking, but it makes things tricky for ingredients like squid ink and spinach.

3) Keep your expectations reasonable.

The challenge with naturally-occurring food colorings is that they aren’t as intense as commercial ones. So, my best advice is just to accept that off the bat: Your red won’t be pure red, but the colors have unique tints all their own. The key to achieving the most vibrant color is to start with as concentrated of a base as possible. While you won’t be able to achieve colors quite as intense, the goal with DIY colorings is to make them as opaque as possible from the get-go for the best results.

Photo by Mark Weinberg

4) Understand powder bases versus liquid bases.

There are two ways to make DIY food colorings: powders and concentrated liquids. Powders are the easiest way to make DIY food colorings because they dissolve easily and are already somewhat concentrated, meaning they can lead to more intense color. You can purchase many fruits and vegetables in powdered form, or you can make your own by buying freeze-dried fruits and vegetables and pulverizing them to a fine powder in a food processor or spice grinder. Some ingredients—like cocoa, coffee, tea, and spices—are naturally in powdered form, and you can add these directly to a frosting. Depending on the ingredient, this can lead to slightly clumpy results, so you may want to dissolve them in a small amount of liquid (milk, water, etc.) beforehand.

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Top Comment:
“Also butterfly pea tea is another good source to making blue food pigment especially when grounding the tea to a powder.”
— William J.

The second way is to make a concentrated liquid. The liquid can be pure juice, a strained purée, or water-based: If you have a juicer, use it. It produces the purest liquid that you can reduce to the proper consistency. Pureés are also good, though they may contain some solids (you can always strain it), and a thicker final liquid. I made a purée for the blueberry-based coloring by bringing the blueberries to a simmer, puréeing with an immersion blender, then straining the purée. The water method isn’t the best, but it’s a great way to get color from certain ingredients that need to be infused (for the saffron coloring, I infused the saffron in warm water). Whatever method you use to make a liquid base, you always have to reduce it. When you reduce a liquid, water evaporates—this basically ensures you’re ending up with as concentrated a color as possible and getting rid of of excess water that could negatively affect the recipe you’re adding it to. I reduce liquids until I’ve reached about 1/4 cup.

Photo by Mark Weinberg

5) Know that heat can play a role.

I usually use these natural food colorings in cold applications, to tint frostings, icings, and glazes. It should be noted that while many of these food colorings could successfully tint baked goods, like cookie dough or cake batter, heat can be an impeding factor, as many of these colors can change when exposed to heat, becoming duller or browner. It should also be noted that the food colorings themselves should be cooled completely before you add them to any recipe.

6) Add to frosting, then decorate!

Once you’ve made your food colorings, all you have to do is add them to a basic frosting or icing. Just like with traditional food colorings, it’s best to add the color in small amounts gradually until you achieve the color you want. Keep in mind that you can add more powdered coloring than liquid coloring without affecting the recipe.

I love to use these natural colorings to tint royal icing, which I then use to decorate cookies! I decorated these Easter egg cookies (with Amanda Hesser’s sugar cookie recipe) using the flooding technique. You can do it plain, or add simple patterns like dots or stripes. If you add the dots or stripes while the flooded icing is still wet, it will appear flat when dried. If you add the dots or stripes once the bottom layer of icing is dried, you’ll get a more textured effect. If you want to get really fancy, try some of Alice’s marbling techniques to make some stunners.

Natural Food Coloring Recipes

Photo by Mark Weinberg

Add 1 to 2 teaspoons strawberry for every 1 cup of royal icing. You can dissolve the powder in 1 to 2 tablespoons water before you add it if you want to minimize the risk of clumps. (Psst: Speaking of pretty pink glazes, check out these soft yogurt cookies with a raspberry glaze from Molly Yeh.)


Add 1 to 2 teaspoons beet powder for every 1 cup of royal icing. Dissolve the powder in 1 to 2 tablespoons water before you add it if you want to minimize the risk of clumps.


Add 1 to 2 teaspoons carrot powder for every 1 cup of royal icing. Dissolve the powder in 1 to 2 tablespoons water before you add it if you want to minimize the risk of clumps.


Bring 1 cup of water and about 1/8 teaspoon (1 small pinch) saffron threads to a simmer over medium heat. Remove the mixture from the heat, and let steep for 15 minutes. Strain, then return the mixture to the pot. Reduce to 3 to 4 tablespoons, then transfer to a small jar to cool completely. Add 1/2 to 1 teaspoon yellow color for every 1 cup of royal icing.


Add 1 to 2 teaspoons matcha for every 1 cup royal icing. You can dissolve the powder in 1 to 2 tablespoons water before you add it if you like.


Combine 2 cups shredded red cabbage and 1 1/2 cups water in a small pot. Bring the mixture to a simmer over medium heat. Remove the mixture from the heat, and let steep for 15 minutes. Strain, then return the mixture to the pot. Reduce to 3 to 4 tablespoons, then stir in a small pinch of baking soda—this will turn the color from purple to blue! Transfer to a jar to cool completely. Add 1/2 to 1 teaspoon blue color for every 1 cup of royal icing.


Combine 2 cups blueberries and 1/4 cup water in a small pot. Bring the mixture to a simmer over medium heat. Simmer until the berries burst and begin to break down. Use a potato masher to mash the berries, then strain the liquid, discarding the solids. Return the juice to the pot and bring back to a simmer. Reduce to 1/4 cup, then transfer to a jar to cool completely. Add 1/2 to 1 teaspoon purple color to 1 cup of royal icing.

A Few Desserts to Get Started

Natural food coloring is a wonderful way to brighten—and flavor!—countless desserts. You can either start with a baked good that already calls for a simple white frosting (say a basic royal icing or buttercream), or you can add your own. Also don't be shy about branching out beyond frostings and glazes. Whipped toppings and plain ice cream recipes are also great candidates for food coloring.

Sugar Cookies With Buttercream Frosting

To make this buttercream even brighter to begin with, skip the vanilla bean seeds or vanilla extract. This will help whichever color you pick to stand out even more.

Sweet-Cream Ice Cream

Skip the vanilla bean and extract and you have a blank-slate ice cream, both in flavor and in color. From here, you can color it however you want. This is especially fun for ice cream cakes.

Chocolate Donut Holes

To make these chocolate donut holes even moodier, try a cocoa or coffee glaze. Matcha would also be delicious.

Anything Plus Yogurt Whipped Cream

Whether it's a thick slice of pound cake or a hot-fudge ice cream sundae, most desserts can (and should!) be improved by a big dollop of yogurt whipped cream. But why leave it white when you could turn it pastel pink or orange or green?

Saffron & Chocolate Tea Cake

To double down on the sunny, golden color of this tea cake, opt for a saffron, turmeric, or carrot-powder glaze. These savory flavors are an A+ contrast to sweet chocolate.

What's your favorite color scheme? Let us know in the comments!
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See what other Food52 readers are saying.

  • Tea
  • Jasmine Bowen
    Jasmine Bowen
  • Tracy Cheah
    Tracy Cheah
  • govinayak
  • Leora Cramer
    Leora Cramer
I always have three kinds of hot sauce in my purse. I have a soft spot for making people their favorite dessert, especially if it's wrapped in a pastry crust. My newest cookbook, The Book on Pie, is out on November 10th, 2020.


Tea May 9, 2020
Important to note that too much base makes the cabbage green. Which is good or bad depending on your needs. So just a sprinkle of baking soda makes it blue/purple but more makes it green. This is important to note because if you’re adding to something acidic (Buttermilk) or lacking acid The color will change.
Jasmine B. May 6, 2020
Saffron for food coloring? 😱 Oh my, that is one expensive icing!
Tracy C. March 12, 2020

How long would i be able to keep the food coloring?
govinayak January 20, 2020
Food Additives are functional substances usually used as an ingredient in the food to improve upon the aroma, color, consistency, taste, flavor, texture or shelf life of the product.

One of the most prominent and commonly used additives is the synthetic colors. The use of synthetic colors has been traditionally used in the food industry to give the aesthetic appearance and appeal to the products.

There is an increasing awareness in the industry regarding Natural colors and Natural flavors keeping in mind the demands from the consumers for Natural products. Vinayak Ingredients Pvt Ltd also offers a whole range of spray-dried Natural colors, fruit and vegetable powders and essential oils.

Natural colors and Natural flavors can be used in various applications in the Nutraceuticals, Pharmaceuticals, Food and Beverages, Confectionery, Baby foods, Dairy and many other applications. Customized variants of the Natural colors, fruit and vegetable powders and synthetic colors are also easily available based on the requirements and needs of our customers.
Leora C. October 19, 2019
Thanks for the article. I wonder if mugwort or moringa can be used as green dyes. Or other ground plants or leaves? Any time I see matcha, I think of those two.
Novice October 8, 2019
Hello pls could you tell me how long the dye will keep when made up ie can I make it the day before I make my cake and icing? Doing red cabbage blue dye hopefully. I'm guessing I need to store it in the fridge? Thanks for any advice.
William J. April 9, 2019
I would suggest replacing coffee with espresso since coffee is processed through gas lit fire with a stone mill while espresso is roasted by sun's UV rays and then kept the way it is to ground by a stone mill. Either way if wanting to stay natural on the colors it's best to know what has health benefits behind the curtain of each food product you buy.

Also butterfly pea tea is another good source to making blue food pigment especially when grounding the tea to a powder.
CAITLYN M. January 9, 2019
How long before the dried royal icing colors fade/separate?
I've use other all natural dyes before & they separated/spotted in the royal after 2 days - is that normal?
I'm new to using all natural food dyes, so I'm grateful for any advise.
Esvee May 11, 2018
I had such high hopes for this. I followed the directions for blue food coloring to a t, made it a week before my daughter’s third birthday. I wound up adding the entire bottle of coloring to homemade buttercream and now have a gloomy gray cake. Not sure how this is going to go over but I tried!
Esvee April 18, 2018
This is such an old article, but I hope someone out there can help out! I love the pale blue icing above made with red cabbage -- could I use this food coloring to tint buttercream instead? I have a request for a pale blue birthday cake! TIA!
Jk P. February 20, 2018
Where do you all buy beet powder, strawberry and blueberry powders? Thank you
Susanne H. April 1, 2017
I use blueberry powder (freeze-dried blueberries, pulverized in a coffee grinder) and baking soda for the color blue!! 💙
Bascula March 19, 2016
Thank you!
Courtney C. March 18, 2016
Thank you so much for this article! I love decorating cookies, but I'm pretty grossed out by all of the chemicals in the dyes that I have to use for coloring. These will be much better! Even if the colors are not intense, I love the subtle tints - perfect for Spring!
Bascula March 18, 2016
Seriously, the pronunciation thing again? The fact that you CAN'T pronounce the name of an ingredient doesn't make that thing bad! The fact that you CAN pronounce the name of an ingredient doesn't make that thing good! Please think of another way to say what you mean - like 'colors from things you can find in your home/buy at the grocery store' or the like.
Sorry for the rant, but I get tired of this pronunciation "rule" I see everywhere as though it made sense.
Ben March 18, 2016
Perfectly said, the chemical responsible for color of berts is part of the Betacyanins family. The true IUPAC name being much much longer. Stop spewing garbage about pronunciation having anything to do with food safety. Let me give you an example. I can pronounce lead easily, that doesn't mean I should be putting it in my food. Idiots
Sarah J. March 18, 2016
These are good points and we've changed the title to reflect them. Thanks!