Change the Way You Bake

Whole-Wheat vs. White Flour: What’s the Difference?

July 15, 2019
Photo by James Ransom

Can you substitute whole-wheat flour for all-purpose? As whole-grain baking becomes more popular, so does this question. The answer often goes something like: Well, yes, and no.

“You can take your recipes and start substituting whole-wheat flour for a portion of the white flour,” the team at King Arthur Flour writes in Whole Grain Baking. But, “In most cases, you can’t just take out white flour and put in whole-wheat flour.”

Other sources agree with this go-small mentality. In BakeWise, Shirley O. Corriher says, “Using whole-grain flours can present challenges.”

In How to Cook Everything, Mark Bittman says you can ditch “up to 50%” of all-purpose flour and replace it with whole-wheat. “Anything made with 100% whole-wheat flour will be heavy and dense, so most people like to combine it with some white flour for lighter results.”

Join The Conversation

Top Comment:
“I would have to say that depending on what it is you are making, I HIGHLY suggest Whole Wheat Pastry Flour. YES, you can still taste the difference, but it works so great in baked products and pizza crusts. It also is very good for bread! Now, it does have a lower protein content=generally with 3g per 30g (1/4 cup), but do not forget you can always add a little vital wheat gluten if you are making bread or pizza, etc., and you want that lighter taste and stretch with a nice chew. Also, if you have a really good blender or nutribullet, grinding it in small batches makes it even softer! Give it a shot!”
— Spirilunx

Meanwhile, some sources caution against substituting, period. In The Baking Bible, Rose Levy Beranbau writes, “Be sure to use the flour specified in the recipe.” What’s more, she adds, “Don’t substitute ingredients before making it at least once to see the way it’s supposed to come out.”

Today, we’re going to ignore the usual advice and see what happens with a compare-and-contrast baking experiment: by using whole-wheat in recipes that were developed to use all-purpose. To the test kitchen!

But First, Flour 101

What's the difference between all-purpose and whole-wheat?

All-purpose flour, also known as white flour, is usually made from a mix of hard and soft wheat, to achieve the ideal protein content (figure, 10 to 12 percent, but it varies by brand). The bran (exterior of the wheat kernel) and germ (part of the inner seed) are removed, leaving only the endosperm. You can buy bleached (treated with a chlorine gas) or unbleached (the former has a lower protein content, the latter browns faster).

Whole-wheat flour, as implied, is made up of the whole wheat kernel—endosperm, bran, and germ. Because of this, it has a higher protein content than all-purpose (up to 15 percent), as well as more fiber, nutrients, and flavor. Because the bran and germ get in the way of gluten formation, whole-wheat flour has a bad rap for making baked goods dense and stodgy.

How does a flour’s protein content affect baking recipes?

How much protein a flour has determines how much structure a baked good will have. For instance, bread flour’s higher protein content encourages gluten strength, dough elasticity, and a chewier result. On the other end of the spectrum, cake flour has a lower protein content, for a light, tender crumb.

And what about the bran and endosperm?

The bran and germ get in the way of gluten formation. This is one of the reasons why whole-wheat flour has a bad reputation for making bread heavy.

Baking With Whole-Wheat

What happens when you give all-purpose recipes the whole whole-wheat treatment? I tried four different recipes and made each one three times: 1) as written with 100 percent all-purpose, 2) with 50 percent all-purpose and 50 percent whole-wheat, and 3) with 100 percent whole-wheat. All substitutions were determined by weight, not volume. I expected with each for the original to be best and the substitutions to be progressively worse. But, boy, was I wrong.

Can I substitute whole-wheat flour in cookie recipes?

Photo by Emma Laperruque

We’ll focus on crispy-chewy cookies, which don’t want to be light and fluffy. I had a hunch that whole-wheat would fare just fine here, and that turned out to be an understatement.

The original: Baking guru Dorie Greenspan calls these her “classic” and “best” chocolate chip cookies. (If you know Dorie, you know that’s saying a lot.) They are toffee-sweet from the brown sugar, very buttery, and loaded with vanilla. The texture is crisp along the edges and chewy-gooey in the center.

50% all-purpose, 50% whole-wheat: Slightly dark in color and drier in texture—but, overall, these were quite similar to the original. I loved the nutty flavor, which balanced the sweetness.

100% whole-wheat: Flour is an ingredient! is what I thought on first bite. In classic chocolate chip cookies, you can taste a lot of the main ingredients (brown sugar, butter, vanilla, and chocolate), but all-purpose flour isn’t one of them; it merely gives the cookies their shape. With whole-wheat, the flour’s flavors come through—and the cookies taste even better because of that.

Can I substitute whole-wheat flour in cake recipes?

Photo by Emma Laperruque

The very concept of cake flour would indicate: no. Cake flour, which is milled from soft wheat and has a protein content of less than 9 percent, is designed for a fluffy, puffy, practically feathery crumb. Whole-wheat’s higher protein content and weighty bran and germ should ruin everything, right? Apparently not.

The original: This recipe, created by North Carolina–based baker Jodi Rhoden, is everything a pound cake should be: sturdy but not heavy, buttery to the extreme, and not-too-sweet thanks to tangy sour cream. It uses all all-purpose flour.

50% all-purpose, 50% whole-wheat: The texture here was incredibly comparable to the original and the flavor, more nuanced, with a nuttier vibe and balanced sweetness.

100% whole-wheat: Many surprised staffers, including myself, named this their favorite of the bunch. What?! While its texture was tighter, the flour’s confident personality showed through, making the loaf all the more interesting.

Can I substitute whole-wheat flour in pie crust?

Photo by Emma Laperruque

BraveTart author Stella Parks swears by bleached all-purpose flour for her pie dough, largely because of its reliably lower protein content (read: lower gluten formation). So, we can assume that higher-protein whole-wheat will create a tough, chewy crust, yes? Not quite.

The original: This is my go-to pie dough, in bite-size form. Its high ratio of butter to flour means big flavor. By bringing it together in a stand mixer, you eliminate the stress of, Are my hands melting the butter too much? and end up with a flaky, shattery crust.

50% all-purpose, 50% whole-wheat: Like the cake and cookie, this test is hard to distinguish from the original with respect to texture, but the flavor is more enjoyable to eat.

100% whole-wheat: Slightly denser and tougher, but not a disaster! This has me thinking that a 75% whole-wheat, 25% all-purpose could be a great pick for savory hand pies.

Can I substitute whole-wheat flour in bread recipes?

Left, 100% all-purpose. Right, 50% all-purpose, 50% whole-wheat. Photo by Emma Laperruque
Left, 100% whole-wheat. Right, 100% whole-wheat with extra water. Photo by Emma Laperruque

100% whole-wheat bread is so notoriously difficult to pull off well, many bakeries don’t even offer it. My experiment confirmed as much—but had a surprise twist at the end.

The original: A no-knead bread that’s so fast and fuss-free, it’s Genius. This recipe from Alexandra Stafford uses instant yeast for snap-to-it rising and generous hydration for a hole-speckled crumb.

50% all-purpose, 50% whole-wheat: Like the original, this bread was fluffy and light. But, while the original has a milky-mild flavor, this version is distinctly wheatier and nuttier.

100% whole-wheat: The most disappointing test of the whole experiment. The bread’s rise was completely stunted, making the the crumb tight and dense.

100% whole-wheat, with an extra water: Okay, I cheated. When I mixed the 100% whole-wheat dough, it was significantly drier than its all-purpose counterpart. So, in another just-for-fun round, I added ½ cup more water, which basically turned the dough into porridge (oops, too much). The result? A super fluffy, almost English muffin–textured loaf. While the amount of increased water needs some refinement, this turned out to be my favorite of the bunch.

This post contains products that are independently selected by our editors and writers, and Food52 may earn an affiliate commission. Do you ever substitute whole-wheat in baking recipes? Tell us what happened in the comments.

See what other Food52 readers are saying.

  • BD
  • Gene Mirro
    Gene Mirro
  • RetterFlour
  • Angela Preuss
    Angela Preuss
  • Inge
Emma was the food editor at Food52. She created the award-winning column, Big Little Recipes, and turned it into a cookbook in 2021. These days, she's a senior editor at Bon Appétit, leading digital cooking coverage. Say hello on Instagram at @emmalaperruque.


BD May 10, 2021
As an alternative to Whole Wheat Pastry Flour, could you mix half White Whole Wheat Flour or half Oat Flour and half Pastry Flour? I'm thinking of this for cinnamon rolls or muffins.
Gene M. February 11, 2021
I just tried adding some Vital Wheat Gluten Flour from Bob's Red Mill. It's about 80% gluten. I got very good texture without doing anything special. I'm surprised nobody is talking about this product.
RetterFlour September 8, 2020
Because of problems I encountered baking with whole-wheat flour, and wanting the most digestively beneficial fiber, I developed RetterFlourTM. It is intended to better preserve nutrients, flavor, bran's digestive value, be better rising, and reduce the need for frozen or refrigerated storage.

I am curious what you and other experienced bakers may think about it. You can see a brief description at: Comments or suggestions will be appreciated.

[email protected]
Angela P. June 11, 2020
This is awesome. I’m going to do this as an experiment with my kids!
Inge May 27, 2020
Thank you for this article, since white flour messes with my digestive system im want to replace whole wheat flour, i tryd with one and it turned out fine except the dough was to thick next time i will add more liquid to the dough it was apple crisp and it was delicious
Gale H. July 21, 2019
Thank you for a great article, which tells me I am on the right track! Started subbing WW flour for AP in quick breads long ago with great results. I like the more rustic aspect not to mention nutritional benefits. Then I took WW flour - again 100% - to chocolate chip cookies. I sub 1 cup of flour for 1 cup of oatmeal and let it go to town in my stand mixer. Big hit! My 9-year old grandson asked me to please give my recipe to his mom (my daughter) because he just LOVED my cookies!
ivy G. July 21, 2019
Food 52 genius cocoa brownies taste even better with whole wheat flour! I purchased spelt flour from Los Angles based Grist and Toll flour mill
And it took the brownies to an entire new level!
Emma L. July 21, 2019
Yum, that sounds so good!
Jocelyn Z. July 16, 2019
Fresh milled flours are the way to go for nutrition and flavor. A little more time investment to mill your own but worth it. Hope you explore this in the future, home milling is making a well deserved comeback.
Nancy H. July 15, 2019
What type of whole wheat flour was used - was it straight hard wheat or was it an approximation of all-purpose white with a blend of hard and soft whole wheat? This is a wonderfully informative article since I prefer to bake with whole grains as much as possible for the flavour as much as the nutrition. Thank you, Emma!
Spirilunx July 15, 2019
I would have to say that depending on what it is you are making, I HIGHLY suggest Whole Wheat Pastry Flour. YES, you can still taste the difference, but it works so great in baked products and pizza crusts. It also is very good for bread! Now, it does have a lower protein content=generally with 3g per 30g (1/4 cup), but do not forget you can always add a little vital wheat gluten if you are making bread or pizza, etc., and you want that lighter taste and stretch with a nice chew. Also, if you have a really good blender or nutribullet, grinding it in small batches makes it even softer! Give it a shot!
Lawyerjen July 22, 2019
Yes! I use WW Pastry Flour in nearly all my quick breads, muffins, scones, etc. I typically mix it 50/50 with regular flour, and it works out beautifully.
Skibonkrs2 July 15, 2019
Great start in illuminating the worthy path back to “whole grain”. Recovering not only the nutrition, but those fabulous flavors! Awesome to show that a straight swap is possible with awesome outcomes. You wisely stuck your “toe in the recipe tweak water” by adding some extra to bake bread as WW is a bit more thirsty. Explore “autolyse” and replacing fast acting yeast with traditional starters. The latter both improves functionality and digestibility. Kudos!
Liz D. July 15, 2019
I sub 100% white whole wheat flour for almost everything I bake for us at home. I find it does need extra moisture, or a little less flour, and in bread dough I add extra gluten. I've just started trying whole wheat pastry flour in cookies, I like the texture much better, not as coarse. With white whole wheat, there is a small flavor difference, but most people don't seem to notice
Paddyree July 15, 2019
I was expecting you to try Whole Wheat Pastry Flour as a comparison. It contains the whole wheat kernel but uses only a soft wheat grain. I have great results using Bob’s Red Mill brand, in everything I bake.