Back to Basics

How to Make Bone Broth

Our ultimate guide to understanding broth vs. stock, roasting vs. not, aromatics, and different cooking methods.

by:
January  2, 2020
Photo by Rocky Luten. Food Stylist: Drew Aichele. Prop Stylist: Brooke Deonarine.

Bone broth has been having a bit of a moment. Lauded for its jiggly-when-cold, collagen-rich liquid (which is relatively low in calories, high in protein, and supposedly promotes skin, hair, and nail growth) and compatibility with fat- and protein-centric (and carb-avoidant) diets, bone broth has even been a way for curious eaters to practice environmentally conscious cooking. If our food is indeed only as good as the food it eats, then throwing bones fed by grass; local, still-gritty carrots and onions; and tap water into a large pot, means concentrated good—for you, for the community, and for the planet—right?

What's the difference between broth and stock?

Although bone broth has enjoyed recent trendiness, it’s been around for a long, long time—just not by the same name. While “stock” is traditionally made from animal bones, and consequently has a richer flavor and texture, “broth” is typically made from meat, and so, yields a clearer, more subtle-tasting liquid. Ingredients for stocks are also usually roasted until they take on a bit of color (color = flavor), while broth ingredients are added in raw. “Bone broth,” then, is a bit of a misnomer; we’ve come to expect the deep-dark, viscous, collagen-richness of a stock, but enjoy the cozy, tea-like connotations of broth.

Bones are bones are bones...right?

Alright, so if we’re after a broth stock made of bones, can’t we just toss in...bones? Well, yes. And no. Not all beef bones were created equal.

Femur bones, which are typically split lengthwise, roasted, and spooned, are the longest bones in a cow’s body, and filled with marrow. Because marrow is largely fat, save center-cut bones for roasting and topping toast. We’re after the knuckle bones located at the cow’s leg joints. These bones have enough marrow to contribute collagen-rich gelatin to our broth, but not so much as to make the broth unduly heavy.

Rib and tail bones (short ribs and “oxtail”) are sold meatier than center-cut marrow and knuckle bones. They are great options for supplementing, or replacing knuckle bones, as they contain similar amounts of collagen, but with less fat.

Whether you’re able to scrounge together four pounds of knuckle bones, or a combination of knuckle, rib, and tail, make sure the bones you’re buying are organic (grass-fed is a plus). As what you’re doing is basically cooking bones until they’re soft and eating them, this is a time when quality matters quite a bit.

Lastly, you need not use all—or only—beef bones. Feel free to substitute pork and lamb "knuckles" or chicken carcasses. Chicken feet, especially, will add a significant amount of gelatin to your broth.

Photo by Rocky Luten. Food Stylist: Drew Aichele. Prop Stylist: Brooke Deonarine.

Aromatics

This is largely a matter of personal preference. A traditional stock will often include carrot, onion, celery, parsley, thyme, and bay leaves. Feel free to add all that, or whatever you find in the fridge: half a leek, a fridge-softened parsnip, and frizzled-out herbs will all work very well here. All will provide your savory broth with a much-needed natural, vegetal sweetness.

In the first round of development of Our Best Bone Broth, high on my broth-purist horse, I dreamed up a recipe that required just roasted bones and water. I thought, when roasted, grass-fed marrow can be so good, so why would the broth need anything else? Of this version, my recipe taster partner said, "This tastes like Domino's." So, for a broth that tastes a bit more complex than liquidized, synthetic cheese, you have to add aromatics, i.e. vegetables.

As mentioned above, roasting gives the final stock a deeper color and flavor. Instead of plopping tomato paste in along with the water, as many recipes call for (this has always been a mystery to me, as caramelized tomato paste is hugely superior to raw, but I digress), I whisk it with oil to coat and roast the vegetables and bones. Also, vegetable peels = flavor, so don't waste your time peeling anything you don't have to.

Pressure Cooker vs. Slow Cooker vs. Stovetop

I personally don’t own a pressure cooker, and generally distrust any recipe or method that requires the use of a specific appliance. But this is one of those recipes where the appliance in question significantly cuts down on cook time, and makes for a significantly superior end product.

Pressure Cooker. After cooking for two and a half hours on High pressure, the bones had mostly done their job—the surrounding cartilage had begun to turn soft, but the bones themselves had not yet started to break down. Bones breaking down is a good indication that the broth will be fully flavored and fully gelatin-rich. After another one and a half hours at High pressure, the cartilage had completely broken down, and finally, sections of bones had grown soft. Given the large (read: maximum) volume of beefy, fatty liquid in the pot, it's best to let the pressure cooker depressurize on its own (I did this manually the first time and got hot bone broth all over my countertop and walls).

Slow Cooker. A slow cooker, unfortunately, will not get to a high enough temperature to break bones down properly, nor will its use reduce the cook time in any real way. Might as well, then, in my opinion, do it on the stovetop.

Stovetop. While not impossible, it took the stovetop version 16 hours to get to that same bone-melty place. I’m not totally keen on leaving the stove on for that long (overnight especially). But, if you’re planning on being in or around the house all day, and enjoy the smell of Beef! in the air, the stovetop method works the best.

Storage

Let the stock cool slightly before fine-straining and transferring to smaller, airtight containers. I love quart containers or Mason jars, as they’re easy to label, store, and retrieve from the freezer as I need them. If using glass containers, do leave at least one and a half inches of headspace while filling them. Liquids expand as they freeze and will break your jars (I’ve broken at least five jars this way). After just a few hours in the fridge, the stock should completely solidify, and you can easily peel off the "puck" of fat that's risen to the top. Don't discard this! Store the rendered beef fat (tallow) in a jar, and use it to roast wintry root vegetables, toast slices of bread, or crisp smashed potatoes.

How do you take your bone broth? Let us know below in the comments!

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Coral Lee is an Associate Editor at Food52. Before this, she cooked food solely for photos. Before that, she cooked food solely for customers. And before that, she shot lasers at frescoes in Herculaneum and taught yoga. When she's not writing about or making food, she's thinking about it. Her Heritage Radio Network show, "Meant to be Eaten," explores cross-cultural exchange as afforded by food. You can follow her on Instagram @meanttobeeaten.

3 Comments

Pat O. January 5, 2020
I have been making roasted bone broth for years in the pressure cooker (roasting beef bones, carrots, garlic, onions, plum tomatoes, thyme, bay leaves together in the oven at 450 degrees for 45 minutes). Then I use the pressure cooker adding all of the solids into it and adding water to the fill line. Cook on high for 45 minutes and let the cooker cool naturally. Save the liquid and discard everything else. If it is cold and cough time I cut up slices of ginger, 6 or 7, and put the already done stock back into the pressure cooker and heat until it the cooker indicates high. I put the pot into the sink and run cold water on it to de-pressurize it -- you can hear it "sigh." That "tea," whether beef or chicken, is terrific with a squirt of lemon, and perhaps a touch of honey, to soothe a cough, open up sinuses, whatever. In fact, I have about 10 pounds of knuckle bones that I am about to transform into this magical stuff.
 
Darleneleh January 4, 2020
For Christmas Eve we roasted a 50lb pig Hawaiian style. Marinated in Spanish mojo: garlic, lemon, sour oranges and oregano for 24 and roasted it for 7 hrs. I never thought of making bone broth with the pig bones before, but I have to say that that is the best bone broth I’ve ever had in my life! No aromatics just the roasted bones. One cup of this broth will keep you going all day without the need for coffee.. I simmered it in two stock pots for 24hrs with water and a bit of vinegar. I still have 3 quarts left in the freezer.
 
FrugalCat January 4, 2020
Any soup with bones in it, I cook with a little vinegar to get the calcium out of the bones.