What Is Garlic Mustard? (It’s Not Garlic Mixed With Mustard)

This flavorful spring green is highly pesto-able. Let’s learn all about it.

April 22, 2021
Photo by Melina Hammer

Every month, Melina Hammer, Food52's very own Hudson Valley correspondent, is serving up all the bounty that upstate New York has to offer.

Now that it’s early spring, I am overjoyed to discover tender garlic mustard, one of the first wild ingredients to sprout from the still-dormant upstate New York landscape.

Garlic mustard, Alliaria petiolata, also known as poor man’s mustard or Jack-by-the-hedge, is a plant in the mustard (Brassicaceae) family, originally brought to the U.S. from Europe as a garden plant to help mitigate erosion. It is a biennial, sprouting vegetation in its first year, then after overwintering, it produces seeds in spring.

Garlic mustard is also an aggressively invasive species, suffocating the biodiversity of native plants. As The Nature Conservancy states, “Because the understory of a forest is so important for insects and other species at the bottom of the food chain, invaders like garlic mustard who emerge earlier than most native plants weaken the entire ecosystem.”

Join The Conversation

Top Comment:
“Yet another fail, you are talking about how to identify and pick this plant yet you do not show one picture of the actual plant. You folks have to rethink your style here, it's a fail most times.”
— George

You simply cannot overharvest this plant, and in fact, you’re doing a service to native plants everywhere by picking it. I diligently do my part to hamper its spread by collecting it by the armful, and you can, too.

Where to Find Garlic Mustard

Garlic mustard grows in many parts of the U.S. around forest edges, garden beds, disturbed woodlands, roadsides, and walking paths. It is one of the earliest spring plants, growing in squat bunches beginning in late March in the Hudson Valley, and reappearing in late fall. It is commonly found in parks, highway medians and shoulders, trails, urban areas, and gardens across the entire East Coast, Pacific Northwest, and Midwest. Unfortunately, garlic mustard has spread everywhere, save for ocean coastlines and the desert.

How to Identify Garlic Mustard

Since it is one of the earliest green things to begin growing again in an otherwise brown landscape, it is fairly easy to identify—once you know what to look for. Garlic mustard’s tender foliage is a rich, deep green. Leaves have a wrinkly surface and a rounded, serrated edge. When plants mature, leaves become more heart-shaped, with leaf tips more similar to knife points.

But don’t just use your eyes: Crush a leaf in your hands—if it releases a strong garlicky, mustardy aroma, it is indeed garlic mustard. There are other plants sprouting at this time of year that marginally resemble garlic mustard (violets, which are a deeper green and do not have the serrated edge, and ground ivy, which is not wrinkly, and grows along the ground in a creeping fashion). None have the telltale aroma when their leaves are crushed either.

Garlic mustard, like other brassicas (broccoli, kale, cabbage, broccoli rabe) contains trace amounts of cyanide. Unless you’re consuming a huge quantity of it, however, there’s nothing to fear. If you want to be completely in the clear, know that the toxin is water soluble, so blanching, soaking, or boiling the greens prior to consuming will ensure safe enjoyment.

Photo by Melina Hammer

How to Pick & Store It

When plants are young and present as clumps, harvest smaller leaves abundantly. As garlic mustard matures and sends up a juicy stem ending in a flower bud, cut or snap it off 4 to 7 inches down the stem—basically as long as you’d like, noting where the stem feels juicy, not fibrous. When garlic mustard is flowering, snap the uppermost part of the stem and flowers off between your fingers. If you’re game to pull plants up by their roots, harvest the whole thing and take from it what you plan to use, then discard the rest in the garbage.

Rinse leaves and shake or pat them dry, then store in a container, sealed in the fridge. If you bring young stems home, store them in a tidy bunch in a plastic bag. If you harvested flowers, store them in a container as you would the leaves, but don’t rinse them until just before using—flowers are delicate and will disintegrate if stored wet. Because these are picked at peak freshness, all but the flowers will last for up to 2 weeks, giving you ample time to devise many delicious ways to use this delicious ingredient.

What to Do With It

When garlic mustard blooms, its sprays of white flowers give a wispy punch to salads, pizza, pasta, fish, and more. No need to cook them. Just sprinkle as a finishing touch.

One of my favorite times to harvest is when garlic mustard is still young. At this stage, it is excellent wilted in a cast-iron skillet and added to grains, beans, seared meats, pizzas, or toasts. Or, a quick and equally versatile preparation—and one of my favorites—is a pre-soaked raw, blitzed pesto sauce that also happens to be vegan.

Once the flower stem (petiole) shoots up from the bunch and flower buds have formed, the top 5 inches or so can be readily snapped off; they taste similar to broccoli rabe. Try chopping into bite-size pieces and sautéing.

Even garlic mustard roots are edible—they taste akin to horseradish. After scrubbing roots of their dirt, grate into salad dressings or marinades, or slice thinly to infuse vinegar or oils.

And their seeds? Yep, you guessed it: edible, too! Use seeds as you would mustard or black pepper, as a sprinkle to garnish pasta dishes, or, if you like to bake bread or crackers, as a sprinkle when finishing the dough, just prior to baking.

You can even use tiny garlic mustard sprouts as you would microgreens. They make an excellent topping to custardy eggs.

A Couple Recipes to Get Started

The green sauce is versatile: Toss it into pasta, slather it onto toast, or dip crispy roasted potatoes, as I have here. I sauté the tender stems similar to broccoli rabe, and pair them with grilled or seared fish or meats. This salmon dish is the epitome of spring.

Have you cooked with garlic mustard before? Do you have a tip you’d like to share? Let us know in the comments!

See what other Food52 readers are saying.

  • advansi
  • Craig Molway
    Craig Molway
  • Louise Vidricaire
    Louise Vidricaire
  • George
  • Melina Hammer
    Melina Hammer
Melina is the author of 'A Year at Catbird Cottage' with Ten Speed Press. She grows an heirloom and pollinator garden and forages wild foods at her namesake Hudson Valley getaway, Catbird Cottage. Melina loves serving curated menus for guests from near and far seeking community amidst the hummingbirds, grosbeaks, finches, and the robust flavors of the seasons.


advansi April 26, 2021
This article could not be better timed. Just yesterday I saw the recipe for salmon and garlic mustard and had to ask my mom "what is garlic mustard?" 😂
Craig M. April 23, 2021
In the US, Garlic mustard is considered an highly destructive invasive species that inhibits local flora from growing. It should not be planted or transplanted. If you are foraging for it, pull it up by the roots and discard what you do not use in a plastic bag. Do not compost, the seeds will survive composting and using composted soil will simply spread it. Mature plants with flowers will also go to see after pulled. I spend the spring pulling it wherever I can find it. Sometimes I even use it for cooking.
Melina H. April 23, 2021
Amen amen!!
Louise V. April 22, 2021
I'm also a little concerned when I see wild-harvested plants with their roots -- in this case the contentious pic with the mushrooms, fiddleheads and wild garlic. In Québec, Canada, wild garlic was almost picked to extinction and now the practice is banned. I can only hope that 'someone' thought to leave some unpicked, in situ.
Melina H. April 22, 2021
I totally hear you. Foraging ramps is highly contentious and I share your concern about them being over-harvested. I am rather evangelical about sharing proper practices whenever I see people foraging them these days. However, garlic mustard is overtaking our biodiversity, at least here in the US. It springs forth sooner than most native plants and is quite an aggressive grower. Uprooting it has been made a public call to action in certain locales, it is so invasive. Any literature will support that it is good to pull it by its roots to prevent further spread (see article links). We've added a photo of garlic mustard to the article so readers can further educate themselves. Thank you for this important observation.
George April 22, 2021
Yet another fail, you are talking about how to identify and pick this plant yet you do not show one picture of the actual plant. You folks have to rethink your style here, it's a fail most times.
Emma L. April 22, 2021
Hi George! Melina kindly just shared a photo with me, which I've added to the article above. Hope that helps you find some garlic mustard so you can try her recipes.