Have you tried using the water drop method? If you're not using a thermometer it can be helpful.
Drizzle your caramel into cold water and if it firms up enough it is done, if it's still quite liquid it needs more time cooking.
If you're not certain the candy was cooked to the correct temperature, start there. It's all about water content which determines the temperature at which the syrup boils and the consistency when cool.
You don't need a candy thermometer per se, but every kitchen needs a digital thermometer for safety's sake, if not for reasons such as this. Cooling a spoonful in cold water will work but it's not as precise nor anywhere nearly as quick and easy as reading the temperature with a thermometer.
You may be able to save the batch by reheating it and bringing it up to the correct temperature.
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