Panfried Pork Steamed Buns (Shengjian Bao)

March  5, 2014
0 Ratings
  • Makes 18-24 buns
Author Notes

As any Chinese auntie can tell you, steamed buns (called mantou when plain and baozi when stuffed with filling) are a Chinese staple. That much is clear from their endless variations: From Cantonese char siu bao and egg custard lau sa bao, to the works of art that are these steamed scallion rolls (huajuan), steamed buns are ubiquitous in Chinese cuisine.

One of my favorite takes on the bun is a Shanghainese specialty called shengjian bao, made by taking regular pork-filled steamed buns and pan-frying them in gigantic woks. The result is a fantastically crisp and flavorful bottom crust paired with a bun that is still as fluffy and soft as ever.

This recipe begins with a blank canvas for plain mantou, based on my mother’s recipe. It’s beautifully simple, with just six ingredients.

From there, you can do a few (or a lot of) things. If you’re just looking for a side of rolls with dinner, you can stop after the dough has had its first rise, roll it into a long cylinder, slice it into 1-inch pieces, and steam as is. (I used a traditional bamboo steamer for these, but you can also use a metal steaming tray fitted to a pot or a steamer tray for a rice cooker or slow cooker. In a pinch, you can even set a metal colander with feet inside a pot of water or use another makeshift steaming method.)

Or, you can follow the recipe below to make pork and vegetable steamed buns, with an option at the end to fry them at the end and turning them into my favorite shengjian bao.

Finally, if dessert is more your speed, just replace the pork filling with some of this red bean paste, or any sweet filling you desire. (Peanut butter and jelly steamed buns, anyone?) Finally, a note on flour: For the purest white steamed buns, use bleached flour. For a finer, fluffier bun, replace one cup of all-purpose flour with cake flour. —Cynthia Chen McTernan

What You'll Need
  • for the dough
  • 2 1/4 teaspoons active dry yeast (1 packet)
  • 1 cup milk (any kind will do; I used 2%)
  • 1 tablespoon oil
  • 3 cups all-purpose flour
  • 1/2 teaspoon salt
  • 3-4 tablespoons sugar (less if you prefer a more savory dough)
  • for the filling
  • 1 pound ground pork
  • 1 cup chopped leafy vegetable, like cabbage or bok choy (you can even use Brussels sprouts for extra crunch)
  • 1 tablespoon sugar (optional)
  • 2 tablespoons soy sauce
  • 1 tablespoon sesame oil
  • 1 tablespoon shaoxing rice wine (if unavailable, you can use sake or mirin)
  • 1 teaspoon grated ginger
  • 2 stalks green onion, finely sliced (plus more for topping at the end, optional)
  • 2-3 garlic cloves, minced
  • 1/4-1/2 teaspoons salt
  • 2 tablespoons cornstarch (optional)
  1. Warm the milk and oil in a pot over low heat until lukewarm but not hot. It should feel comfortable to the touch. Remove from heat and pour into a bowl. Sprinkle the yeast over top the liquid and let sit for 8-10 minutes.
  2. Sift together flour, salt, and sugar. Trickle the yeast liquid slowly into the flour, mixing with a spatula or chopsticks as you go. (You can also just alternate between pouring and stirring.) Once all the liquid has been poured in, knead for 10-15 seconds until dough comes together.
  3. Turn the dough out onto a floured surface and knead again until smooth, at least 4-5 minutes. Place the dough in a large, greased bowl, cover, and let sit for 1-2 hours, or until doubled in size. I prefer a slower, cooler rise, but you can do whatever you’re used to
  4. When the dough is almost done with its rise, mix together the ingredients for the filling (pork, vegetable, sugar, soy sauce, sesame oil, rice wine, ginger, green onion, garlic, and cornstarch) until well-incorporated. (Note: Regular cabbage or Brussels sprouts are fine to add as is; if using Napa cabbage, you'll need to extract the water first. Sprinkle about a teaspoon of salt over the cabbage and let sit for 10 minutes beforehand, then drain the water that is released and squeeze out any more moisture. This will prevent the bun from getting soggy.)
  5. Next, punch down the risen dough. Turn onto a floured surface again and knead for just a few strokes. If the dough is too sticky, add more flour. Pinch or cut off a ping-pong ball size piece of dough and roll into a flat circle of dough about 3 inches in diameter. Place about a tablespoon of the pork mixture into the circle and fold the dough up around the filling, pinching and pleating in a concentric circle until the top is sealed. It doesn’t have to be perfect -- you can always place it seam-side down for a smooth and uniform top. As you can see, I’m far from a pleating expert! For easier pleating, you can try rolling the edges of the dough circle thinner, leaving the center thicker.
  6. Place the finished buns on a baking sheet and cover with a damp towel to avoid drying out as you fold the others. You can let the buns proof again at this point if you like, but I find that the second rise is somewhat built into the process -- since pleating the buns takes some time, the buns I prepare first have usually had time to rise again by the time I’ve finished pleating the last ones. On top of that, you’ll likely have to steam these in several batches, so that the buns you prepare last will have proofed by the time the first ones have steamed.
  7. When you’re ready to steam the buns, line your basket or steaming tray with a circle of parchment paper. Place the folded buns at least two to three inches apart inside the tray. They will expand significantly, so give them room. I only steamed about three or four per tray.
  8. Fill a wok (or pot, or rice cooker, depending on what you’re using) with about an inch or two of water and bring the water to a simmer over medium heat. After the water has begun to simmer, set the basket over the water, covered, and steam for about 15 minutes, or until buns are resilient when touched and filling inside is cooked. Make sure to refill the water between batches, as it will likely boil dry. You may also need to adjust the heat to low as the water boils -- a low simmer is all you need.
  9. To fry: Pour a generous amount of oil into a large wok or saucepan -- enough for at least a quarter-inch layer of oil in the bottom. Turn the heat to medium and wait a few minutes to let the oil heat up. Turning the heat down to medium-low or low, place the buns in a single layer in the wok and let sizzle for 2-3 minutes, or until golden brown. If it’s sizzling too violently, turn the heat down or off for a minute or two until it calms down, and keep a close eye on the bottoms of the buns. I like to keep the heat lower because it doesn’t matter if the buns take a bit longer to fry up, but it’s a bummer if they burn! Remove from the pan when browned on the bottom and drain on paper towels. Let cool slightly, then eat while still crisp and warm. Optional: Serve with extra chopped scallions sprinkled over top and dipping sauce on the side. My favorite is a simple sauce made from 1 part soy sauce 1 part chili garlic sauce, but you can use whatever you like best. I sometimes add Chinese black vinegar and a touch of sugar, too.

See what other Food52ers are saying.

  • Beth
  • Cynthia Chen McTernan
    Cynthia Chen McTernan
  • rushyama (@rushyama)
    rushyama (@rushyama)
  • Matt

14 Reviews

Matt August 2, 2018
These were incredible. Didn’t salt the filling or fry them and they were awesome!!!
Matt August 2, 2018
Can I cut the recipe in half?
Beth February 14, 2016
Could these be frozen at any point along the way, perhaps after steaming them, and then pan-fried? I can't wait to try these but 18 buns is a lot for 2 people...
Cynthia C. February 14, 2016
That's a great question. I've never tried it, but I think after steaming would work! Maybe you could reheat them briefly, either by steaming or microwaving, before panfrying? I imagine that the panfrying alone wouldn't be enough to thaw them completely, though I could be wrong. If you try it, I'd love to hear how it goes. Now I'm tempted to make another batch -- for the sake of science, of course :)
Beth February 15, 2016
Cynthia, thank you very much for your answer. I've made my own potstickers for years, and normally do a very large batch and freeze them, then pack them into ziplock bags and make as many as I might need at a given time. Since the potstickers get simmered before frying them, they can be started completely frozen. My thoughts would be to microwave the buns to at least thaw them out and then pan-fry. I will definitely let you know how this comes out!
rushyama (. March 15, 2016
I have successfully frozen these post-steaming, after they've cooled! We reheat them in the microwave for a minute or two and they taste great. It helps to steam each bun on its own little square of parchment paper so they don't stick together in the freezer.
Althea October 20, 2015
I have used this recipe for the dough a couple of times and its the best out of all the doughrecipes ive tried. Today i tried the filling too but i added some mushrooms and it tastes amazing. Best buns ive ever done! :)
Cynthia C. February 14, 2016
This makes me so, so happy. Thank you so much for such kind words, Althea!! You've truly made my day.
pollycharlie January 25, 2015
Just tried this recipe. The dough is chewy but not tough. It holds up against the steaming. The filling is excellent, too. I will recommend the tablespoon of sugar because with it the filling taste a lot like store-bought buns. Highly recommend!
Cynthia C. February 14, 2016
A very belated thank you!!! I'm so glad to read this!
za'atar May 17, 2014
This is a great recipe! The ratio of filling to dough is perfect and the dough holds up really well after steaming. I thought they were a little sweet (just my preference) so next time I will cut the sugar out of the filling, but I will definitely be making these again and again. Also can't wait to try them with a bean paste filling.
Cynthia C. May 17, 2014
I'm so thrilled you liked it!!! Your comment reminded me that I'd scaled back the sugar in another test of this recipe and liked it better as well -- I've updated the ingredients to reflect your feedback. Sorry to have led you astray :( but so glad that you still enjoyed them!
homie S. April 4, 2014
I'm making these today (half pork filled and half plain) and I was wondering how they hold up over a couple days...I made bao using a different recipe that had high gluten flour in it and they got tough immediately after cooling down. Any thoughts?
Cynthia C. April 7, 2014
Hi! I've never used high gluten flour, so I can't say for sure how it compares, unfortunately, but my experience with these is that they do stay soft for a few days, especially when warmed up briefly in the microwave.