How to Cook a Turkey Perfectly

The best way to roast the big bird may also be the simplest.

July 13, 2021
Photo by Ty Mecham

There are a thousand and one ways to cook a turkey. Just google "how to cook a turkey"; you'll find that some swear by a wet brine while others insist on a good dry brine. Here at Food52, 500°F is a favorite oven temperature for roast turkey (hi, Judy), though others vouch for a lower, steadier heat, closer to 350°F or 375°F. Regardless of how you choose to roast a turkey this Thanksgiving, Eric Kim is here to show you his favorite way to do it—from a home cook's perspective—and it's a lot simpler than you'd think.

Growing up in Georgia, Thanksgiving for me meant driving a couple hours south to my Aunt Joy's house, in Augusta. We'd arrive Wednesday night and stay up late playing video games with the cousins. First thing the next morning, at around 4 or 5 a.m., my mom and aunt would put the bird in the oven and roast it low and slow for 8 hours, basting it every 30 minutes and watching it like hawks. It was such an ordeal.

Because of this ritual, for years I thought turkey was the absolute hardest thing to cook in the world because anything that takes 8 hours to become edible must be an impossible feat of black magic, right?

I also thought that turkey was, on principle, meant to be dry.

The thing is, roasting a great, juicy turkey isn't as complicated as people make it out to be. I imagine there's a lot of hullaballoo over it because many of us have been raised on dry Thanksgiving turkeys, mostly as a result of our overcooking them. We're terrified of undercooked poultry (and rightfully so!), but with this fear comes an overcompensation in roasting time.

So how do you cook a turkey in the oven?

That's like asking someone how they tie their shoes or take their coffee or boil their eggs. You may be a wet-briner or a dry-briner, and both certainly have their merits. A turkey brine is like insurance; the former produces meat that's wetter and a touch squishy—kind of like what you'd get from a deli counter (which isn't necessarily bad; many prefer it). The latter means the entirety of the bird is salted through and through (no huge bucket of salmonella water to deal with).

Our most popular turkey recipe is, after all, the "Judy Bird," a Genius recipe that lets you dry-brine (that is, apply kosher salt all over) a frozen bird while it's thawing. Excavated from the greatest culinary depths by Kristen Miglore, this very smart recipe won a turkey taste test over at the L.A. Times back in 2006. And who's to argue with its four-star rating and hundreds of reviews?

For me, after much soul searching (and many tests in my tiny N.Y.C. kitchenette), I've found that the best method is to just roast the darn thing. Like a chicken. No brining, no hair dryer, no black magic. Just a bird and a boy and an oven.

How to Cook a Turkey in the Oven

Easy Roast Turkey Recipe

  • One turkey (frozen is fine; just account for about 1 pound per person, unless you want leftovers, in which case you should account for about 1 1/2 pounds per person)
  • Unsalted butter, room temperature or melted
  • Kosher salt
  • Freshly ground black pepper
  • Kitchen twine
  • Instant-read meat thermometer

1. Defrost your turkey (if it's frozen)

Ideally you'd let this happen gradually, over the course of a few days before Thanksgiving (or whenever you're serving the turkey), in a 40°F refrigerator. The golden rule is about 24 hours of thawing for every 4 to 5 pounds.

But sometimes that doesn't happen! And sometimes it's Thanksgiving morning and your bird is still hard as a rock. In that case, the water thawing method can save lives...or, at the very least, a lot of stress. To thaw a turkey quickly, place your frozen turkey (still in its packaging) in a bucket and cover with cold tap water, weighing it down with a can or something to ensure that it's fully submerged. The golden rule here is 30 minutes per pound of turkey. Don't forget to replace the water every 30 minutes.

2. Bring your turkey to room temperature

Leave the turkey out on the counter for an hour or so before roasting. A fridge-cold bird will not cook as evenly as a room-temperature bird. Once the turkey has come to room temperature, dry with paper towels. Patting the skin thoroughly with towels will absorb any excess moisture on the exterior of the bird, which will ensure that the skin gets extra crispy and golden brown as it cooks in the oven.

3. Truss your turkey

This isn't as complicated as it sounds. Just take a few inches of kitchen twine, wrap it around the body of the bird, and tie the legs together, which will ensure even cooking. After the turkey has cooked fully, simply cut the twine with kitchen shears and discard it.

Photo by James Ransom

4. Season your turkey in the sink

"In the sink?" you ask. This is a weird "me" thing. Most people season their turkeys straight in its roasting pan, but I find that this leads to excess salt at the bottom, and since I like to use the drippings to make a gravy later—often straight in the pan itself—this can also lead to an oversalted gravy. Another issue is that if you're applying melted butter and some of that drips off into the pan, the milk fats can burn, and the one thing we don't want on Thanksgiving Day is for the smoke alarm to go off.

Which is why I like to place my bird on a cutting board and place that cutting board in a very clean, very empty sink. That way you can:

  • Butter the turkey. (I think melted butter is easier to massage over the skin, but you could use softened room-temperature butter here if you'd like.)
  • Salt to your heart's content. And since we're not brining here, it is essential that you go absolutely heavy with your salting hand. First, salt the inside of the turkey (all sides of the cavity, but especially where the breast is). Then, cover the entire surface area of the bird with salt. This is the point at which you should also grind over some fresh black pepper.

I don't stuff my bird for good reason: It will cook much faster, not to mention that I just really don't think it makes much of a difference in the turkey's overall flavor.

My baby. Photo by Me

5. Roast the turkey (yup, that's it!)

Many recipes call for a high start and a low finish (i.e., 450°F for the first few minutes, then 350°F until it's done). But I like to roast a turkey in the oven from start to finish at a moderate 350°F. No need to cover the bird in aluminum foil either—just cook it in a deep aluminum or stainless-steel pan lined with a roasting rack. If you don’t have a roasting pan to cook a turkey in, use a deep sheet tray or baking dish lined with a wire baking rack, so the heat is distributed evenly and the turkey cooks properly. This is the best way to cook a turkey so that it stays juicy.

6. How Long to Cook a Tukey

You should account for about 13 to 15 minutes per pound. This means that the ideal cooking time for a 12-pound turkey is about 2½ to 3 hours. But since all ovens differ vastly, I highly recommend that you don't go by time, but rather by internal temperature. The golden rule is 165°F in the innermost part of the thigh and the thickest part of the breast. I like to pull the turkey out of the oven once it has reached 160°F because it will continue to cook as it rests, which you should absolutely let it do.

6. Let the Turkey Rest

Let the turkey rest for at least 30 minutes before carving, but an hour is best in my book. Even after all of this time, the turkey will still be plenty hot all of the way through. Better yet, the juices will have redistributed and you'll be looking at the tenderest, moistest turkey of your life.

10 Ways to Roast a Turkey

If you're looking for more ways to roast a turkey, here are some of our top recipes through the years:

1. Slow-Roasted Turkey

“It requires a lot of time and a very low oven temperature, so it's a good method for those with kitchens with two ovens (lucky!) or for when you're cooking the turkey ahead of time and reheating gently before the big meal,” says recipe developer Erin Jeanne McDowell. But hey, if you’ve got the oven space and the time, then there’s no reason not to try this method for cooking turkey.

2. Torrisi's Turkey

This roast turkey recipe is adapted from Torrisi Italian Specialties, an Italian restaurant in the heart of Manhattan’s Little Italy, which sadly closed for good in 2014.

3. Butter & Herb Roast Turkey

If you’re in search of a classic, crowd-pleasing roast turkey recipe, this is it.

4. Bacon Bird with Turkey Neck Gravy

Okay, now we’re talking. For the most savory, succulent, fatty, flavorful, irresistible, and incredible turkey ever, layer the bird with individual strips of bacon while it roasts in the oven. Frankly, we can’t imagine why we haven’t been cooking a turkey in the oven like this all along.

5. ​​Herbed Turkey Roasted in Parchment

This foolproof method for cooking roast turkey for Thanksgiving may just become your new favorite method.

6. Very Lemony Brined Turkey

Three types of lemony products—the zest and juice of fresh lemons, lemongrass stalks, and lemon thyme—perk up this otherwise traditional roast turkey recipe, which cooks in the oven on a roasting rack.

7. Gin Brined Turkey

When you think of Thanksgiving, your mind probably doesn’t immediately go to the bottle of gin on your bar cart (or hey, maybe it does and that’s okay, too). But you’re going to view this aromatic liquor in a whole new way when you brine a 12- to 14-pound turkey in an entire liter of it.

8. Honey & Sage Brined Roast Turkey

Instead of a spicy dry brine made with tons of salt and cracked pepper, try this sweeter, more aromatic turkey brine using fresh sage leaves, thyme, honey, and garlic.

9. Spatchcocked, Braise-Roasted Turkey With Herb Butter

Learn how to spatchcock a turkey with this quick-cooking method. A combination of apple cider and turkey stock help to create the most flavorful pan sauce, which also keeps the turkey extra-moist.

10. Paul Virant’s Make-Ahead Roasted Turkey With Smothered Gravy

Short on time, or simply want to save yourself some prep work on Thanksgiving morning? Prepare this make-ahead roast turkey recipe, so that all you need to do is reheat the meat and gravy day-of. We promise it’s just as good as if you made it fresh.

How do you cook your turkey? Let us know in the comments below.
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Eric Kim was the Table for One columnist at Food52. He is currently working on his first cookbook, KOREAN AMERICAN, to be published by Clarkson Potter in 2022. His favorite writers are William Faulkner, John Steinbeck, and Ernest Hemingway, but his hero is Nigella Lawson. You can find his bylines at The New York Times, where he works now as a writer. Follow him on Twitter and Instagram at @ericjoonho.


Diane F. November 25, 2022
A no nonsense recipe. Loved it!
Karen C. October 31, 2022
Has anyone ever tried making a sous vide turkey?
michael November 23, 2020
Put that Bird in The Roasting Bag,, Done!
HalfPint November 1, 2022
This is my sister's go-to for Thanksgiving. It's good, though I do prefer crispy turkey skin.
Steven W. November 21, 2020
Be really adventurous---bone your turkey! Look on line for a how to and a few weeks before practice with a whole chicken or two. (The turkey and chicken are built the same!) Be careful with the skin, try not to cut it too much. Flatten it out and season as you prefer. You can even put the stuffing in. Roll and tie and roast. It's a dream to slice and you've got time to use the bones for your stock.
JoanB November 21, 2020
I am going to try this method this year. Sounds simple and from the comments, quite successful. Any tips on making the gravy? Always stressful for me.
Tracey M. November 23, 2020
Gravy used to stress me out, but now it doesn't. When I cook my turkey, I put garlic bulbs (cut in half), quartered onions and rough chopped carrots in the bottom of the pan. I also add a lot of stock (boxed; I don't make my own) to the bottom of the pan. If you do this, it's important that the turkey is elevated so it's not sitting in the stock. My rack is flat, so I just make big tin foil balls, put them in the corners under the rack, and that works fine. After the turkey is done and set aside to rest, I strain all of the liquid from the bottom of the pan into a measuring cup. I take as much fat out as I can manage. I used to try to get every bit of fat, but learned that perfection isn't necessary here. I make a roux of equal parts butter and flour (1 stick butter, 1/2 cup flour), and cook until it's a nutty brown color. I add enough stock to the drippings to make 6 cups, and add that to the roux. Whisk until it's the thickness you like, add salt and pepper to taste, and that's it. If it tastes bland, I'll add some worcestershire sauce. That helps with the color as well. Good luck!
Siobhan W. October 10, 2020
I tried this for the first time last Christmas and it was so... relaxing! The bird came out beautifully so I’ll be doing it again this Monday for Canadian Thanksgiving. Thanks so much - I finally have a go-to method for roasting my turkeys!
Pumpkiness December 5, 2019
Over the years I have made a ton of turkeys in a variey of ways, including basting, brining, tenting, cheese cloth, and so on. I decided to try this approach this year since I was at a friend's house who had limited kitchen resources. It was absolutely the best turkey ever! So flavorful and moist! I took him at his word about using the salt liberally and was worried about it, but it worked beautifully. We didn't have any twine and we didn't plan to stuff, so I quartered some apples and onions to fill the cavity to prevent moisture loss. Halfway way through, I turned the turkey around and poured some broth on it. That was it!!!! Sooooo simple and no mess, no stress. Thank you, thank you, thank you!

Also for the first time this year I threw the carcass in a crockpot, instead of simmering on the stove, so we could head out shopping. Worked wonderfully and the broth was also some of the best ever.
Rosalind P. December 5, 2019
A silly little hint, and maybe so obvious: since tying the legs is part of the success for this approach, and you don't have kitchen twine, dental floss works beautifully. It's clean, and wrapped around three or four times, very strong.
Pumpkiness December 31, 2019
So I just made this again and this time used the convection roast feature on my oven. Not only did the turkey come out tasty and perfectly done, but picture perfect...brown evenly all over with crisp skin. Definitely will always do this in the future. Faster too of course.
Sivahn B. December 2, 2019
Never written a comment/review before, but this recipe was SO helpful and effective that I just wanted to say thank you! Loved the explanation (take down) of other methods as well.
One question - while I was buttering the turkey (with a combo of softened and melted butter), the butter started to congeal and take on an almost soft-breadcrumb consistency, is that normal? The turkey turned out great either way!
Eric K. December 3, 2019
I'm so glad. Thank you.

And yes, I think what you're describing is just the soft butter hardening again from the cold turkey skin? Normal.
Shannon M. November 29, 2019
Eric K, you come through for me once again!!! Tempted I was, by the dark side...whispers of “Dry brine me” and “Cook me breast side down” echoed in my mind.
And then I read your timely and brilliantly simple article. And I thank you a million times over. I followed your directions to the letter, except for the butter and the Basting to make me feel like I was doing something 🤣🤣🤣. And I only skipped those because of sloth.
Washed in well-cleaned sink, coated with salt and pepper in same sink, tied the legs, tucked the wings and roasted at 350° for 13 mins per lb, then rested for an hour under foil.
Bird was gorgeously golden brown, tender, and juicy. Made me a T-day all-Star!
Simple and perfect. Hugs to you.
My house is very thankful for Eric K!!!
p.s. I read your most entertaining bits aloud to my other half. He thinks you’re great too.
Eric K. December 3, 2019
Ugh, Shannon, this comment made my night. Thank you so much, and I'm thrilled that it worked for you. Let's you and I continue to preach the power of deliberate idleness.
Marcylawrence November 29, 2019
Made my 16.5 lb turkey at 325 degrees using convection setting. Took 2 1/2 hours. Came out fabulous!!
Eric K. November 29, 2019
Deborah S. November 29, 2019
Came out great! Perfectly browned. No need to baste. Moist!
Eric K. November 29, 2019
Yay! So glad. I didn't baste either and it turned out perfect. Let's remember that for next year.
Linda S. November 28, 2019
Forgot to buy kosher salt. Can regular table salt work?
Eric K. November 28, 2019
Yes, table salt would be fine; I'd just use it a little more sparingly. Happy Thanksgiving!
Jean M. November 28, 2019
I’m confused. Everything I read says 20 mins per lb to cook turkey (21.5 appears to be about 7 hrs) but all the grids show approx 4 3/4 - 5 hrs for that weight
Eric K. November 28, 2019
Trust the grids! 20 minutes/pound may be overcooking it, in my opinion. Try 13 minutes/pound and check the turkey's temp with an instant-read thermometer. Good luck, Jean!
txgreyhound November 27, 2019
Dare I ask, what about cooking a fresh turkey breast in the crock pot?
Eric K. November 28, 2019
That's a great idea! I have to tackle a turkey breast today, myself...
Marcylawrence November 27, 2019
I have a switch to convert my oven to a convection oven, the reading I did said the turkey not only cooks faster, but is juicer because of the air flow. True? Thought? I also use a kosher turkey and have never been disappointed.
Tracey M. November 25, 2019
This made me laugh--my mom and dad always did the low and slow, frequent basting method of turkey cooking, and I always thought it was some crazy process that I could never do. But in the 10 years that I've been hosting Thanksgiving, I cook the turkey exactly as you suggest, and I always get compliments! And it's so darn easy! I happily accept the compliments, but I feel a little guilty because it's almost no effort. Happy Thanksgiving!
Eric K. November 26, 2019
Why won't anyone listen to us??
Tracey M. December 2, 2019
I don't know, but they should! I even forgot the turkey in the oven this year until someone reminded me...it cooked maybe 45 minutes too long and it was still moist and wonderful. Any other method is just unnecessary work in my mind.
Becky November 25, 2019
Do I need to use a rack in the roasting pan?
Stefani November 25, 2019
My roasting pan with rack went the way of the birds.... (lol) years ago - I did a 12 lb. turkey tonight in my roasting pan (like the one that comes with your oven).....I put long pieces of carrot and celery down under (acted like a rack - from suggestions I heard here on Food52).....it worked perfectly.. But then again it was only a 12 lb. bird......had it been larger I would have gotten an inexpensive roasting pan. Roasting pans are always good for something else.
Eric K. November 26, 2019
Nah. I like to lay a bed of onions sometimes? But you could also just lay it straight on the pan (nothing to burn, which is nice insurance).
Deborah S. November 25, 2019
Question: When the turkey comes out to rest for 30 - 60 minutes, do you cover it with foil?
smcintyre November 25, 2019
Yes, loosely cover it with foil.
Eric K. November 26, 2019
Yes, I think that's a nice idea. Definitely let it rest for a full hour.
Linda S. November 28, 2019
Alex g. (Can't spell her name) from the food network turns her turkey breast down when it rests and says it redistributes juices back into the white meat. Sounded like a good idea that we will try today.
Looking forward to trying another one of your awesome recipes, Eric.
Eric K. December 3, 2019
Thanks Linda. xo
Alexis S. November 24, 2019
Eric- with this method do you still baste their turkey?
smcintyre November 25, 2019
No. You need to keep the lid on for the entire time.
Eric K. November 26, 2019
Maybe once or twice? Not imperative; I like to baste it just to feel like I'm doing something...
Rosalind P. November 24, 2019
I would like to add one piece of advice that I think is really helpful if...a big IF for many....you can get a kosher turkey. Not because you follow the dietary regime of kosher, but because the required process for preparing meat to be kosher includes several steps of soaking, salting and rinsing that removes all blood and makes for an extremely tender and tasty bird. And of course, the salting performs what a conventional brining does, only moreseo. Granted kosher turkeys aren't universally available, but if you can get one, try it. But if you use the drippings for gravy, adjust the salt in your grave recipe to accommodate any saltiness in the drippings. Use a thermometer to check for done-ness, and you will get raves for the delicious tender breast meat.
Eric K. November 24, 2019
Delicious. And very good points; I don’t know why I never thought to buy a kosher bird!