How to Make Snappy Sauerkraut at Home (You Can Do It!)

January 10, 2020

Perhaps you have heard that the more we eat fermented foods—delicious things that are probiotic, like pickles, miso, yogurt, kombucha, sourdough, kimchi, and sauerkraut) the happier our guts tend to be. Perhaps you have also heard of the microbiome—the lush community of microbial flora and fauna of our bodies, which, among other things, seem to keep us healthy. If you and I have chatted about fermented foods before, you know that I am totally fascinated by the microbiome, by these good bacteria that animate us. (Aside: If I haven’t talked your ear off about it yet, check out this video from NPR. You will be astonished and fascinated and probably giddy. Then again, it could just be your microbiome talking.)

But I’m a cook, not a scientist, and I’m certainly not here to make any health claims. What I am here to say is that sauerkraut is delicious, colorful, and basically a blinking neon light in the often beige and heavy landscape of winter foods. There’s a reason kraut (and its cousins, kimchi and the deli pickle) are served with those buttery, starchy winter staples. And there’s a reason so many cultural foodways have some kraut variant, if not at their centers then certainly off to the side, to be heaped crunchily, tangily on top of whatever is at the center. It is also extremely easy to make. In fact, after a half-hour or so of active cooking, sauerkraut basically makes itself.

If you want to give home fermentation a go, there may be no better way to start than sauerkraut. Beyond being hands-off, wonderfully sour and crunchy, and a world away from kraut that comes in a can (which is how I grew up eating it): 1. It's a much less expensive weekend than trying to make croissants from scratch; 2. For those of you at home afraid of poisoning yourself with a pickling project, there’s very little that can go wrong, and; 3. You probably already have all of the “equipment” you’ll need.

Are you convinced? Onward!

What You'll Need

Food Ingredients

The most important things you need to make kraut is salt and vegetables. Start with a ratio of 1 ½ tablespoons kosher salt to every 2 ½ to 3 pounds of grated or very thinly sliced vegetables, at least part of which is cabbage. (A smallish head of cabbage weighs about 2 ½ pounds.)

Join The Conversation

Top Comment:
“The VERY positive UP side is, you can create really any fermented vegetable kraut-type ferment you want, and the sky for tastes are unlimited.. My best suggestions-- Give it a try, start small in case you do not like it, keep ACCURATE and DETAILED records of what you do, so you can make subtle changes, and not start every batch from ground zero.. GOOD Luck All.”
— DLanthrum

Some ideas for what to make kraut with: cabbages (red, green, napa) of course, carrots, beets, apples, Asian or other firm pears, bell peppers, turnips, Brussels sprouts, chopped kale, scallions, kohlrabi.

Bright, snappy crunch awaits! Photo by Bobbi Lin


Wash a large glass jar or ceramic fermentation crock with boiling water and soap and rinse well. (If all you have are quart-sized plastic containers, those would work great too.) Track down a smaller glass jar, clean it well, and fill it with something heavy (pie weights, rice, pebbles from your garden)—this will weight your kraut down, so it has to fit inside the mouth of the larger jar. You’ll also need a clean bandana, dish towel, cloth napkin, or the like, plus a rubber band to secure it tightly over the mouth of the larger jar. This will keep dust and bugs and other critters from getting to your kraut before you do.

How to Make Sauerkraut

1. In a large bowl, toss together your vegetables and the salt, then really go at it, scrunching them like crazy with your hands.

Think not about the kind of massage where there is soft music playing and essential oils diffusing and you fall asleep on the table after 15 minutes—think about the kind where it hurts so much that you are quietly crying into the donut on the massage table where your face goes. What you want is for the vegetables to release their liquid.

2. Set the bowl aside for a few minutes while the vegetables make their brine, then scrunch and rest again.

Do this a couple of times over the course of an hour—at least one hour, up to four. Patience is the name of the game with all fermented foods. Once there’s enough brine to cover the vegetables, stir in spices and/or aromatics if you’re using them and tightly pack it all into your big jar or crock.

3. Add some spices or aromatics (optional but gives lots of additional character).

A few ideas: caraway seed, fennel seed, peppercorns, thinly sliced chiles, smashed garlic cloves, fresh smashed turmeric root, fresh smashed horseradish, whole fresh cranberries, juniper berries, fresh smashed ginger root, star anise, coriander seeds, dill seeds, cumin seeds.

4. Make sure the vegetables are completely submerged in salted water.

The fresher the vegetables, the more likely they are to release the water the kraut will need for its brine, or the vegetable juices plus the salt that draws out the vegetable's moisture. If your veg has been kicking around the back of the fridge for a few days (or weeks—no shame there), you may need to top the jar off with some salted water. The rule for sauerkraut is that it should be a 2% salt solution, or about one teaspoon of salt (kosher, please) per cup of water. And, again—all the vegetables need to be totally covered by a healthy layer of brine. I also like to save an outer cabbage leaf for tucking over the grated vegetables beneath the surface of the brine, which helps keep the smallest pieces from floating up, up, up.

5. Set the smaller, heavy jar atop the kraut and cover both with the clean cloth, securing it with a rubber band.

Then tuck the jar in a room temperature, out-of-the-way spot and circle a date on your calendar 3 or 4 days away to start sampling it.

See you soon, my pretties. Photo by Bobbi Lin
6. Keep an eye on the kraut over the next few days.

Over the course of the fermentation process, you might notice some mysterious, whitish scum floating on top of the brine. This is totally normal and should be expected. Just skim off as much as you can with a big wooden spoon, recover the jar, and let the fermentation proceed.

7. Decide How Sour You Want It.

Keep in mind that the fermentation process will go more quickly in a warmer room and more slowly in a cooler one. I like a one-and-a-half to two-week fermentation in my cooler apartment, but you should trust your tongue and ferment for however long tastes best to you. If you taste the kraut and want it to keep fermenting, make sure to carefully pack all the vegetables safely back beneath the brine and weight them down again. The longer you ferment, the more sour and complex and kraut will be. Some let it go 4 weeks or longer. Up to you.

8. Once you’re happy with the way it tastes, stop the fermentation.

Remove the weighted jar and the cloth, covering the large jar or crock with a lid, and moving the kraut to the fridge, where it will keep for up to 6 months. Until then, eat it warm or cold, alongside sausages or in grain bowls, inside pierogi, with anything potatoey, or on a big Reuben-style sandwich or inside a grilled cheese. Lately I have seen people selling the kraut liquid for one to take like a shot—so give that a try, too, or add a splash of it to a bloody Mary.

The perfect accompaniment to sausages, we'd say. Photo by Julia Gartland

What's your favorite thing to 'kraut? Share your great ideas with us below!

See what other Food52 readers are saying.

  • Sally
  • DLanthrum
  • kristin t lane
    kristin t lane
  • Stephanie B.
    Stephanie B.
  • Kelly M
    Kelly M
Writing and cooking in Brooklyn.


Sally September 17, 2021
I'm a newbie at fermentation and from the reading I've done, it might best to use salt that doesn't have the anti-caking agent in it (yellow prussiate of soda).
Can you comment on the best salt to use - maybe sea salt?
DLanthrum September 17, 2021
Sally, if you want to delve into fermentation, I would suggest the book, "The Art of Fermentation" by Sandor Ellix Katz. He gets into many levels of fermentation. As for salt, his preference is Sea Salt, because it does tend to add some mineral elements to the brine or direct rub. Mr. Katz' opinion is that lactic acid of most ferments will not be adversely effected by most salts. Personally, for consistency, I try to stick with 1 brand- Morton's. I use weight ratio of salt per the weight of the ingredients I am fermenting, so coarseness/ fineness is less critical. I will use either coarse Kosher salt, or finer Canning/Pickling salt. My target is 1.5-2.0% salt per the weight of my vegetables. So, if I am making 10 lb. of sauerkraut, (160 oz.) I will use 2 oz. +/- of salt. I want to make sure i am mixing salt in as I go, and if it takes a bit more, to me, it will still not make the taste "salty". I rarely go to or over the 2.0% salt level (3.2 oz. in this case). As I mentioned in my earlier comments, I really enjoy playing with my food-- adding different spices, sometimes mixing different vegetables in etc. And, also as I mentioned, i take it to the next step and "properly" water-bath can them. As another note, I keep accurate records of what I put in, the time and temp. I am fermenting at, etc. as that makes it easier to adjust and correct after each batch. Enjoy, and Good Luck!
Sally September 17, 2021
Thanks for your tips!
I currently have a Sandor Katz book out of the library - Wild Fermentation - so am enjoying all the information I’m gathering.
I have one jar of sauerkraut and two jars of kimchi on the go.
DLanthrum April 24, 2020
This is interesting timing! First, I am a Culinary Instructor, and Certified Food Geek! I have been doing many forms of preservation and charcuterie for many years. Often, cabbage is cheap around St. Pats day, so I load up and try to make Kraut. I would suggest to anyone who does this, whether only rarely, or frequently, to record and track your ingredients and results. That way, if you are REALLY close to what you like, you do not have to start recreating from ground zero. And, as I find, I do not always want to make the same batch or recipe, unless it is something I am marketing.

Many kraut recipes call for caraway seeds, because they do match and complement each other well. I personally find caraway a bit overpowering, so I cut back on it. Thinking on the kimchi line, with more spice, I am a huge fan of horseradish, so I thought about how that would match... I used horseradish as really my baseline, and adjusted that, as well as other ingredients up and down-- such as juniper berries, coriander, mustard seeds, pepper-- white and black... among others. The down side is it takes time for a batch to mature to its "final" taste... I DO take my kraut to the next step and properly "can" it in a boiling water bath in "Ball-type" canning jars.

The VERY positive UP side is, you can create really any fermented vegetable kraut-type ferment you want, and the sky for tastes are unlimited..
My best suggestions-- Give it a try, start small in case you do not like it, keep ACCURATE and DETAILED records of what you do, so you can make subtle changes, and not start every batch from ground zero.. GOOD Luck All.
kristin T. April 11, 2020
I remember eating "weinkraut"...delicious....am going to add white wine to mine!
Stephanie B. January 11, 2020
I've been making cabbage (1 medium-small, chopped), carrot (2, grated), and beet (1, grated) kraut lately-it's great! That amount of veggies makes 2 32oz jars. I don't let it sit for 1+ hours though. And I got sick of trying to diy weights (I don't have tiny jars that fit inside my big jars) and just got this saur-system lid thing. Last time I made kraut I had to push down my veggies once to keep them submerged, but didn't even a weight. Turns out tangy and crunchy!
Kelly M. May 3, 2019
When checking on/sampling the kraut, do you rinse the cheesecloth/bandana before putting everything back together?
Merrill February 18, 2018
Does this method produce crunchy or soft kraut? I was spoiled as a kid with store bought crunchy, but haven't been able to find any for years. If it's crunchy I'll definitely be giving it a try. Thanks.
DLanthrum April 24, 2020
Texture will change the longer you let it ferment... Temperature will influence as article said.. Gotta keep track, and when you like result, stop your process
Pamela February 16, 2018
I always use cabbage to make my kraut. I usually make two five gallon buckets full every year! Not only do we eat a lot of it. Our farm animals get a dose of kraut and yogurt to help maintain their digestive systems as well. My laying hens LOVE their monthly dose of kraut :-)
AngiePanda April 24, 2020
I never thought about giving any to my girls! I guess I need to make more next time to share with them....I haven't made any yet this year but it's warming up and about time to get some started. My chickens say thank you for the idea!
Kim February 11, 2018
What size does the larger fermentation jar need to be?
icharmeat February 12, 2018
Hi Kim,
I'm not Caroline but I know the answer to your question. The fermentation jar is whatever sized jar you in which you care to try this out (how much cabbage are you willing to risk?). If you don't have a lot of jar options, a quart jar will do just fine for a first go-round experiment. The smaller jar (or any other somewhat sanitary way of weighing down the cabbage or other veg which should remain submerged) only needs to fit within the mouth of your larger, fermentation jar and be heavy enough to keep the veg below the briny liquid. This will ensure anaerobic conditions for your lactic fermentation and will retard other growth of unwanted organisms. This is a simple way to make something new and delicious out of fresh food and it is just as easy as Caroline explains. Please give it a try.
Kim February 13, 2018
Thank you icharmeat! I’ll give it a go this weekend!
Saysweetie February 8, 2018
I add caraway seeds, diced apple, honey or pinch of brown sugar — heat ( prefer fried)
Most restaurants will exchange sauerkraut for the potato ... great with any meat
Kathleen C. February 8, 2018
I’d love to try my hand at this! Will there be an odor in the kitchen, during the fermentation process?
Caroline L. February 8, 2018
It doesn't smell at all! Let us know how it goes.
ktr February 7, 2018
We have always made it by layering the shredded cabbage and salt, rather than mixing it.
Caroline L. February 7, 2018
I'll have to try that method for my next batch!
Talicia S. February 9, 2018
We did too. Layer of cabbage, layer of salt, unopened magnum of cheap champagne to pound the cabbage and salt down. Repeat. Drink the magnum of champagne after a few weeks, when the sauerkraut is done. I was ruined for store bought sauerkraut for yeeeeaaarrs.
Caroline L. February 10, 2018
I will never be able to make sauerkraut without champagne ever again.
DLanthrum April 24, 2020
I personally find that crushing it, either by hand or with a "stomper", potato masher, etc. (depending on your batch size) helps break down the cell structure and gets the "juices flowing"
AngiePanda April 24, 2020
That's the perfect method! Bwahahah now I now what my last batch was missing