The Absolute Best Way to Minimize a Hangover, According to a Doctor

Plus, we get to the bottom of that whole "beer before liquor" thing.

December 19, 2019
Photo by Mark Weinberg

According to a study that recently made me very jealous, roughly 23 percent of people may be resistant to hangovers. For the other 77 percent of us, well, at least there's black coffee, next-day bagel sandwiches, and lots of aspirin.

But maybe there's a better way, I thought to myself last Saturday, as I awoke later than I wanted to, the edges of a headache creeping in while I sluggishly made my way—all 15 feet—to my kitchen, for a pot of coffee. (This, from 2 glasses of red wine.)

So—after a long nap, an even longer shower, and more bacon-egg-and-cheeses than I'm proud of—I emerged from the weekend in one piece and called Chaun Cox, M.D., a physician with Mayo Clinic Health System, to get some answers.

Hangover 101

First thing's first: Why do we—77 percent of us, at least—get hungover in the first place?

Join The Conversation

Top Comment:
“I am a firm believer Afters a years worth of hands-on testing, that eating a pear or drinking Asian pear juice prohibits you from getting a hangover. It can also stop you from getting as inebriated as you normally would. Different pears has different results. Red pears actually makes the problem worse. Asian pears work the best. There are enzymes in the pears that prohibit the absorption of alcohol.”
— Doug S.

According to Dr. Cox, a lot of it comes down to dehydration.

"Alcohol is a diuretic, meaning it makes us go to the bathroom more," he says. It contains something called congeners, which are basically substances other than ethanol produced during the alcohol fermentation process—like methanol, acetone, acetaldehyde, esters, tannins, and aldehydes—and which are responsible for some of the way that non-distilled liquor tastes. These, he explains, are toxic to the body, meaning, "generally, they affect how our cells operate. When they do that, the body wants to get rid of them as quickly as possible, so they can’t damage our cells."

Tannins, for example, are congeners you may have heard of, found in wine.

"When alcohol breaks down, our bodies recognize that those congeners are toxic, and the kidney tries to flush them out, so it's pulling water from our bodies to dispose of them," he explains. "We lose things like sodium, potassium, and other essential elements in the process. Then, we feel miserable: muscle aches, headaches, etc."

Sounds familiar.

What to Do Before You Drink

Fill up on protein & fats

According to Dr. Cox, eating a meal high in protein and fats slows the absorption of alcohol from the gastrointestinal tract to the liver. "Meaning, alcohol will sit in the stomach and intestine longer and get broken down more there, before moving on to the liver," which is helpful for cushioning some of the internal processing that leads to a hangover, he says.


As obvious as it may be, Dr. Cox stresses that hydration before drinking can help to build up reserves that counteract alcohol's diuretic effects.

What to Do While You're Drinking

Space out your drinks & hydrate in between

The only surefire way to avoid a hangover is to not drink at all. Plan B? Drink in moderation, and pace yourself.

"The best thing you can do is space out your drinks," says Dr. Cox. "The average person can process roughly one normal drink—like, a single shot of whisky, or a beer—in about an hour. Spreading out drinks accordingly helps stop those congeners from building up for processing." It'll also make you thirsty, he says, which is even further effective in counteracting some of the dehydration alcohol causes.

Choose Your Alcohol Wisely & Mix Thoughtfully

Broadly speaking, Dr. Cox explains, different types of alcohol have different amounts of congeners—dark liquors (like bourbon, red wine, and reposado or añejo tequila) tend to have higher levels of congeners, while clearer alcohols (like vodka, silver tequila, and white wine) tend to have lower levels of congeners. The fewer congeners you consume, the better to lessen your hangover symptoms.

If you're going to mix alcohols, Dr. Cox says, there's some truth to that old adage "beer before liquor, you've never been sicker; liquor before beer, you're in the clear." In the first scenario, he says, you've engaged your body in metabolizing the beer (typically a lower alcohol content), and then you shoot in much higher levels of alcohol while it's already busy processing, which causes that build-up of congeners you want to avoid. But in the inverse scenario, where you've had harder liquor first, when you add beer to the mix, you’ve already front-loaded the highest alcohol volume you’re asking your body to metabolize, and you're just adding a low level of alcohol with a high overall volume of liquid, which is easier to process.

What to Do After You Drink

If You Want a Bedtime Snack, Choose Simple Carbs

If you're craving a snack after drinking and before bed, says Dr. Cox, reach for some easy-to-digest carbohydrates. "It'll give you sugar in your body, giving your body more energy—which you lose when you urinate out the alcohol," he says.

Who am I to disobey a doctor's orders? (Hi, dollar pizza!)

Hydrate Again Before You Sleep—& Make Sure You Do Sleep!

Did you think you'd get out of here without another reminder to hydrate?

Dr. Cox reiterates that drinking water will be immensely helpful in mitigating how you feel the next day, and he suggests a big glass of water before you fall asleep, even if you've been drinking water throughout the evening. Sleep, too, is critical: "When we haven’t slept as much, we haven’t given the body a chance to reset our metabolism. We haven’t had time to process the day physically or mentally."

You’re also more likely to be irritable after less sleep, he adds—which never helps a hangover.

A Few Recipes to Help Minimize Your Hangover

1. Instant Pot Mac & Cheese

Instant Pot mac and cheese is never mushy (and instead, flavorful and creamy) if you know exactly long to cook it for—which luckily, Ella Quittner does.

2. Sheet-Pan Crispy Rice with Bacon & Broccoli

This easy sheet-pan rice has all the crispy bits you could ever want, plus it's totally customizable, so you can toss in whatever vegetables you have in the fridge.

3. Pizza Omelet

Much easier than making fresh pizza from scratch (but maybe a little harder than ordering delivery), this yummy omelet has all the tomato-y, cheesy, herby flavors you'd want in a real slice.

4. Barbara Kafka’s Creamy Lemon Pasta

The best thing about this creamy lemon pasta that feels luxurious and satisfying all at once? It takes about 15 minutes and just three ingredients to make (not counting heaps and heaps of Parmesan cheese).

5. Farro with Roasted Sweet Potato, Kale & Pomegranate Seeds

This hearty grain bowl is packed with the nutrient-rich ingredients you'll probably want in your system after a night out.

More from Food52

Have any other brilliant tips for staving off a hangover? Let us know in the comments!

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Ella Quittner

Written by: Ella Quittner

Ella Quittner is a contributing writer and the Absolute Best Tests columnist at Food52. She covers food, travel, wellness, lifestyle, home, novelty snacks, and internet-famous sandwiches. You can follow her on Instagram @equittner, or Twitter at @ellaquittner. She also develops recipes for Food52, and has a soft spot for all pasta, anything spicy, and salty chocolate things.


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sws December 31, 2020
What works best for me is to have one drink and drink it slowly .. and the next drink is just water or sparkling water and so on :) It's my best defense to date.

All of the recipes look great and tasty.. but if you have a serious hangover, the thought of cooking any of these is just.. too much. lol!
amritadubey2018 December 26, 2020
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Franky June 10, 2019
Just drink a Gatorade right before you go to bed it works for me all the time I wake up with no hangover and fully energized...
Ana M. June 10, 2019
If you really want to avoid hangover consider anti hangover drinks, Anti Hangover drinks consist essestials vitamins and minerals which prevent hangover at firest place. You can check out this drink its cerdified and made from natural ingredients https://dotshot.in/
Melanie February 16, 2019
Don’t drink alcohol period! World Health Organization just released its most global and long term study ever conducted. Their findings? Not even one glass should be consumed.
Gee, I know Debbie Downer but since I quit the wine tastings; pairings etc My picture is proof I have never in 56 years felt stronger physically and psychologically.
Give it a go like I did. I’ve never felt more energized then when I was 22!
lovelymissalex January 4, 2019
Is it just me, or is this an article full of stuff everybody already knew. Everyone knows to drink lots of water (duh), that clear alcohol is easier on the body (duh), it night be a good idea have alcohol with food (duh), and you'll feel better if you can get extra sleep ( triple duh). I would really like to see articles that deliver on their title. This was How To Hopefully Avoid A Hangover With Advice You Akready Knew. It's very annoying to have articles filled up with fluff and overhauled titles. Thank you for introducing nothing new.
Corj December 29, 2018
During my long-ago days of clubbing I would have, right before bed no less, 1 double chocolate muffin (store bought, thanks mom), 1 glass of milk and (oh dear) a few slices of Genoa salami. I'd eat this and sleep like a champ, wake up good to go. I guess the combination of fat, carbs and protein must have been key. Or maybe it was just youth?!
BerryBaby December 29, 2018
It's all very interesting. Alternate a glass of water between drinks. Never experienced a hangover.
FrugalCat December 23, 2018
Hot tea, egg drop soup, saltines and ginger ale. Hopefully last night I remembered a full glass of water (or coconut water) with a multivitamin, a Milk Thistle, and an ibuprofen before bed.
Nancy December 21, 2018
Milk Thistle (4 capsules) and Folate (1 pill) before drinking alcohol, repeat the dose before going to bed with plenty of water. This has worked wonders for me as I can get a hangover from one glass of champagne.
Ella Q. December 21, 2018
Wow, so interesting! I've never tried that but will give it a go.
Christy A. December 20, 2018
I apparently am part of the 23% that rarely, if ever, gets hangovers, but for the times that I have, I've found doing the BRAT diet helps- bananas, toast, and then try some protein once my tummy stops moving sideways. I also find that, like many have said, keeping advil or excedrin migraine (cuz that caffiene will help too) and a bottle of water by the bed REALLY helps
Jayne P. December 20, 2018
Drink loads of water before you go to bed. At least a pint, more if you can. Have a large glass next to your bed and drink it if you wake up in the night. If you still feel rough in the morning, take some headache tablets with either a full-sugar Coca Cola or Sprite, or sports drink, then sit or lie quietly for half an hour. Once you feel able, any sort of food will help you feel better - dry biscuits, progress; toast and jam, good; bacon sandwich, better. Then try to get some mild exercise (walk - swim is excellent), quiet day, loads of liquids (not alcohol), light food and an early night. Then don't repeat it for at least five years.
Sue W. December 20, 2018
I found the headache tablets with the water the night before is very proactive!
Beth K. December 20, 2018
I use Topo Chico as my mixer and never get a hangover. I wake up tired but never hungover. Believe me I have pushed this to the max!! when we party at home I use that giant Yeti cup with a straw ( I know I know) I've had 6-7 of them in a evening.... the little local dive bar near our house has started carrying it so I know we can go there and drink. It works! I have only done this with vodka never my bourbon.
Jim December 17, 2018
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calbo December 11, 2018
What works for me is hydration. I try to interleave my drinks with large glasses of water. The day after, I usually drink a Gatorade/Powerade/Whatever and fruit juice (not orange, more peach or apricot) because I just like it and helps me with the aftertaste.

But now I'm too curious to try Doug's pear method...
Sarah December 10, 2018
Pedialyte is the only surefire way to nullify a raging hangover. These tips are fine for the 3-glasses-or-less crowd, but for the oops-I-drank-2-bottles nights, have some pedialyte or electrolyte powder on hand. Chug h2o or juice until you feel it sloshing around like a water mattress. Sleep as long as possible. Pedialyte. Maybe some weed.
Jim January 4, 2019
Why take a supplement meant for infant hydration? Partistartr is specifically formulated to be taken before/while drinking to reduce the effects of hangovers. You can enter to win a free sample for you and a friend on our Instagram page until 1/20/19.
Linda K. December 7, 2018
Nice article.
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