...stick the dough in a Ziplock bag, removing all of the air, then place in an ice water bath and stick the whole thing in the fridge.
You won't risk ice crystals, like you would in the freezer, and you're still allowing time for the flavors to meld together—which is one of the reasons why you want dough to sit overnight, in addition to getting the dough firm. (Kristen went food nerd and tested this out for us.)
And if you're stressed for time and dough isn't the only thing running behind schedule, here are some other tips for getting things done quickly (roll over the images to see what's what):
What other shortcuts do you put to use in the kitchen? Tell us in the comments!